Sex has always been a topic talked about behind the curtains. It is considered a taboo in India even today. People are even afraid to say the word “sex” out loud let alone discuss it. And it is not something to be very proud of because it has resulted in a lack of sex education in people. This illiteracy has caused several problems to arise in the country.

Here in India, people associate sex education with just the act of sexual intercourse but it so much more than that. Sex education as a whole is a vast subject. It is a program which aims to build a strong foundation of one’s sexual well being, including sexuality and contraceptives. It also includes gender identity, consent and awareness about sexual abuse. 

From a very young age, children are deprived and kept away from any such means that might expose them to the slightest of intimacy. But isn’t this something everyone is bound to learn about someday in life? People in India are of the view that if children are exposed to sex education, it might corrupt them.
Unlike hunger and thirst, sex might not be a necessity but it surely is important for the preservation and continuation of the human race.

This narrow mindedness related to sex has given rise to numerous problems in the country. Like rapes, stalking, eve-teasing and gender discrimination from a very young age. Because adolescents are deprived of the education that is necessary for them, they resort to half and false information available on the internet. This results in an unhealthy sexual life and may also lead to the spread of STDs. 

There is very little knowledge that people have about safe sex, the use of contraceptives and the consequences unprotected relations can have. 

Not only rapes and eve-teasing has increased in the country because of the lack of sexual education, but other problems come with it. Girls are not taught about female hygiene which results in UTIs and other deadly diseases. Cases of sexual abuse are constantly on a rise in the country. People are educated to satisfy their sexual needs only after marriage and this has led them to find other wrong and illegal ways to satisfy them. Be it women, children, animals or men they are sexually abused.

In schools, girls are embarrassed about their gender and pointed out for provoking the other gender. They are also made to feel ashamed about periods.
Pornography is another medium which teenagers resort to for gathering information. It often vilifies sexist remarks against women. It can contain acts and disturbing visuals to such an extent that people try to replicate it in real life. This harms the other gender and themselves.
STDs are also spreading on a large scale because of the lack of awareness about the negative consequences of unprotected intercourse. 

All these problems would not have existed if sex education was provided from a young age. And when I talk about sex education from a very young age I don’t mean sexual intercourse. What I am referring to here are things like good touch, bad touch and respecting gender differences. Begin with small things that make a big difference. Keeping them away from false and half information is the only situation to these problems. Start teaching them from the right age and break the stereotypes before it causes some even more adverse situations.


The Majestic year 2020 is marked by two major events.One is the Onset of the worst pandemic that the entire world is reeling under and the other as the title suggests is Online learning!

The Use of Online Learning or E Learning has skyrocketed in the recent times as the only mode of education in a social distancing setup.Indeed it is a necessity as education cannot be put to rest halting the progress of millions of students.As a coin has two sides,similarly online form of education has it’s own perks and drawbacks.So lets find out more!

Online schooling is a popular alternative to attending a brick-and-mortar college or university. Though online students don’t get the face-to-face experiences of a typical on-campus student, there are many benefits and advantages to online learning, also known as distance learning or e-learning.

While not every program or school imaginable has an online option, a large number of them do, and many programs are nationally or regionally accredited. Students can learn through online lectures, projects and discussions. Online degree programs are available at every level, from certificates to doctorates.

Owing to the Covid situation,organisations that used to vouch for traditional methods of education are now radically shifting towards online education because there is no other alternative.Earlier online education used to be an alternative, now it is the only choice for those who want to desperately continue their education.

When Online Education is the new reality,it is very essential to keep in mind it’s advantages and disadvantages to take maximum benefits out of it and also minimize stress levels.


-Convenient Learning:It can be undertaken anywhere ranging from a tiny corner in the living room to a study table in the bedroom and without a particular dress code(still modest dressing is expected).

-No Infrastructure:No physical infrastructure such as building,classrooms and benches are required for online education.

-Less Travelling: In Online classes there is no need to undertake strenuous travelling routines as students can attend the classes from the comfort of their homes.

-Recordings:Unlike the Traditional Systems,Online Education system provides an option of class recording and hence students can re watch the class recordings to make concepts clear.

-Virtual Reality(VR):Teachers in the online mode can make use of Virtual Reality Techniques to make students understand complex topics in an interesting way.


-Motivation:The laid back nature of the online classes do not provide much motivation to the students.Students do not take online classes to be as serious as classroom and thus do not pay attention.

-Lack of Concrete Assessments:Online mode of education has so far not been promising for people with theoretical subjects as it is difficult to conduct heavy exams here.

-No practicals:People Who study medicine,chemistry and physics an understand how bad this can be!There are certain subjects which cannot be simply taught,practicals and experiments have to be performed to further the understanding.Online education does not support this.

-Stress on health:The negative impacts of online mode of education on the health of the students is indisputable!Several students have complained of migraines,back aches,eye pain and so forth.Students psychologically too have not been able to cope up with the sudden shift and are suffering.

Thus,Online mode of education is a tricky one and should be suitable for certain conditions,Since it is the only alternative now, educationists and policy makers should study the pros and cons to make amends in the present online education structure to suit the demands of students.We have to always remember that Education is fruitful only when it reaches learners effectively!

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Role of Teachers

Teachers play important roles in the students ‘ lives in their classrooms. Teachers are best known for their role in educating the students who are brought into their care. Beyond that, teachers serve a lot of other classroom roles. Teachers set the tone of their classes, creating a comfortable atmosphere, mentoring and encouraging students, becoming role models and listening and watching for signs of trouble. Teachers play an important role in the life of everyone. They not only teach us in classrooms, but we also learn other useful things such as moral principles, social etiquette, how to treat others and be polite to our classmates. Granted that technology has opened the doors to new learning & to have also changed the direction of education. But a decent leader has the ability to change our lives, to set us on fire in the perfect way.

Importance of Teachers in Our Society | Why are teachers so important?

Providing Knowledge

Throughout the classroom, the most important role a teacher performs is to teach the children awareness. Teachers are given a curriculum that meets state guidelines that they must follow. Teachers teach in a range of forms including seminars, small group exercises and hand-on learning.

Creating classroom environment

As for the community, teachers often play an important role in the classroom. Students often mimic actions taken by a teacher. Students are more likely to be successful if the instructor provides a dry, happy atmosphere. Teacher creating an environment may either be positive or negative. If students feel the teacher is angry, students may react negatively to this and learning can be impaired as a result. The teachers in their classrooms are responsible for the social conduct. This conduct is largely a result of the actions of the instructor and of her setting environment.

Ideal Role Models:

Usually, teachers should not think of themselves as role models but they are unwittingly. Students spend a lot of time with their instructor, making the instructor a role model for them. Depending on the teacher, this can be a positive or negative influence.   There are educators not only to teach the kids but also to love and care about them. Teachers are usually highly valued in the community by individuals, and thereby are a role model for students and parents.


Teachers take on a natural role of mentoring, whether it is intentional or not. This can have positive or negative effects on kids, again. Mentoring is a way students are motivated to aspire to be the best they can. This involves inspiring learners to enjoy learning too. Part of the mentoring includes listening to the students. Teachers give students a sense of control in the classroom by taking the time to listen to what the students say. This helps build their trust and helps them to wish success.

Signs of Trouble

Another role which teachers play is a role of guardian. Teachers are taught to look to the students for sign of problems. When the characteristics of the students change or physical signs of abuse are noticed, teachers need to look into the problem. Teachers must follow the procedures of the faculty when all signs of trouble are to be followed.

Charter Schools

Typically called a “School of Choice,” such schools can be set up by anyone; a neighbourhood group, a parents’ association, or a teachers’ group. They must however pursue the terms of a charter constrained by local, regional, national or oversight groups.

Charter Schools - Still Controversial (and Misunderstood) After ...

Since charter schools continue operating outside of the regulations that must be followed by in-district schools, they have the capability to customize classrooms that meet the needs of their students. Each of the dozens and dozens of charter schools has infinite possibilities and is unique in its design and operation. Some have longer school days, some teach the entire curriculum in various languages and some allow students to wear a uniform. Many people think that charter schools offer opportunities for improving our educational system. Others disagree strongly. For a better picture, let’s take a quick peek at the benefits and disadvantages of Public schools.

Charter Schooling Pros:

Supporters think that charter schools expand learning opportunities and have better access to higher education. Let’s take a look at why.

1. Unique Educational approach:

Charter schools allow diverse educational approaches and styles. Most traditional public schools follow approximately the same teaching methods for the students. On the other hand, charter schools focus more on certain topics such as maths and science. They can use Montessori techniques or other forms of learning alternatives.

2. More Excitement:

Charter schools can help kids learn without harsh discipline. In Charter Schools, experience – based and imaginative learning is often seen because there is a sort of independence.

3. Competitive Environment:

Failure to perform could build laziness in the teaching and other policies.Even if they score badly, because they know they will still be operating, they don’t pay much attention to it. But public schools promote competitions creating accountability.

4. Private school atmosphere:

Though charter schools are funded by the public, they are more independent than public schools in the neighbourhood. This makes it more like private schools, with fees reduced. They will recruit qualified teachers and conduct state-commanded training. For under-performance they can be closed even.

5. Closely tied Communities

Most public schools prefer to be private campuses with lower class sizes, and have families similar to one another. Smaller group sizes have other benefits. They facilitate teachers to know the students at an interpersonal basis and have a greater understanding of their intellectual achievements and challenges which enables them to personalize their education more closely to what the student needs.

Disadvantages of Charter Schools:

Although going to study in a charter school has numerous benefits, there are also some negative aspects to it.

  1. Less outdoor activities:  Smaller charter schools often have fewer sporting and other co – curricular activities options. Extracurricular activities and sports are a tremendous part of the educational experience of children, and the comparatively limited possibilities that a charter school provides can be a major drawback.
  • More Secure: Charter schools aren’t as stable as traditional schools. They continue operating on contract and they can shut down at any time of the year even in the middle of the school year. That can have severe consequences.
  • Bribery: Up to $ 1 billion has been wasted on charter schools that never managed to open or managed to open and then closed because of corruption and incompetence and other reasons.


Ultimately, how good or poor charter schools are, depends significantly on the school in question. The idea that charter schools are tax funded but administered independently has led to a degree of public debate. As the number of charter schools continues to climb, the debate surrounding these schools is likewise an alternative choice to public education.

Importance of Soft Skills

Unlike practical skills such as maths, reading, science and social studies, soft skills take priority around communication, relationships with others, and self-discipline. These essential skills are generally learned from their families and peers outside the school environment. Often these skill sets are not taught at all. Ever ask a teenager a question, shooting their hands in their pockets, averting their eyes and mumbling some incoherent answer. It makes you irritated, perhaps even sceptical, but that teen may not have learned the soft skills necessary for child development before you rush to judgement.

Typically these collections of behavioural skills are not learned in classrooms, but studying them in childhood will avoid potential problems.

Soft skills: The importance of and the existing situation in VET ...

Have you ever noticed the self-confident class president learnt from his history teacher how to smooth out his path to victory? He learned more than likely from imitating a member of the family or through a mentor. Yet just what exactly are these soft skills?

Inter-Personal Skills

Interpersonal skills may include greeting older people and colleagues and interacting with individuals outside their immediate family, peers and adults.

Good Manners:

Okay, thank you, you’re welcome, yes ma’am, no sir. All interpersonal skills which are usually not addressed in the school curriculum are polite manners. Ever hold someone’s door open? Who showed you how to do it?


How to hold a conversation with someone. Clear and precise, with no stammering, no hands over the mouth, or averted eyes and reclined posture to get your point across.


Listening is just as critical as talking and for many this soft ability has fallen behind because of our dependence on electronics.

Rapport Building:

Producing mates and mergers. Also, due to our technologies, we rely more on messaging than face to face contact, which is important to establish good relations with others.

Being Empathetic:

To look at things from the shoes of another person. If you are facing a question from another person’s perspective, you are less likely to saunter over this situation without worrying about how the outcome might affect others.

How you can teach soft skills to your children

You showed your kids their ABC’s, how to recognize their address and telephone number, and how to ride a bike and now you have to show them social skills?! Kids learn a lot of interpersonal skills by example before you tear their hair out. Incorporating them into your daily life is easy – in fact you might already do most of them.

Learning Fine Manners:

You don’t need to send your children to the school to learn good manners. Inculcate the learning of fine manners in your kid’s life through the way you go about your life. Always say thank you and please. Hold the door open to people, and use phrases such as ‘excuse me’ and ‘welcome.’ And expect your kids to follow suit.

Communication and building good relations:

Have your children look directly at the person they’re communicating with. Ear buds coming out of ears. Cell phone was tucked away in the pocket. They should concentrate on the individual and listen properly and react properly.

This will help them build good relationships also with people. If they sit in sufficient conversations with adults – with their electronics confiscated – they become aware of the gift and engage in good conversations.

A lesson in the shoes of somebody Else:

Both children will be experiencing a touch of empathy. All too often teens scream ‘get a job’ at a homeless person on the street corner and request other children’s names, without really thinking that there might be a story behind their situation. The girl at the school who stinks can be homeless and without running water. The beggar may be a proud veteran on his luck at the door.

Online Education Vs Traditional Education: Which is Better?

The convenience factor is one of the main attractions of online vs. on-campus education. Simply put, online learning can be done at anytime from anywhere, and is an incredibly efficient option that can easily fit into the busy schedules of the students. Students may “go to class” during their commute, during their break at work, during the weekend, or after their kids go to bed-it is up to them to monitor their class time in a manner that makes sense for them.

Is Online Education Better than Traditional Education? - Kitaboo

In contrast, on-campus education is a less sustainable choice. While many programs, particularly those aimed at adult learners and working professionals, will have class times during the night to facilitate other obligations of the students, students will still have to take the class at designated times, which may interfere with business hours, parenting commitments, and other routines. Additionally, students should take into account in travel time to and from campus-this may present a severe barrier to those who lack reliable transportation, or to those who lives in rural areas without a college campus near the area.

Another advantage of choosing an online college is that when it comes to degree programs, you can have almost infinite choices. When you participate online classes, you can enrol in any school that offers the program you are interested in, regardless of whether that institution is headquartered across the country in a neighbouring state or in any part of the world. That means you can choose an university course that really fits your objectives, preferences and career trajectory. While migrating is an option, for adult learners, who have developed lives, careers, and relationships, this is often not realistic. For older students who wish to attend on-campus classes, because of geography they only have the choice of a few educational institutions and those schools may or may not offer the program they are interested in.

On-campus education is generally structured in a manner that is very recognizable to the students: classes take place in physical classrooms, teachers give lectures and lead discussions, and students have in-person conversations about course material. This is very analogous to the classroom experiences students could have had in high school, so it’s something that unconsciously attracts adult learners to. On-campus class experiences are built around face-to-face interaction and this is something that many learners thrive on – being in a classroom surrounded by your peers, being able to start conversations, form friendships, asking questions, and set up meetings in person with the teaching staff and support staff as required.

For certain students the perception of online learning may at first feel very unfamiliar and even a little awkward, especially if they are not used to conversing through written work. However, by the end of their first term, most students have absolutely adjusted to this new way of learning, and find that their conversations with professors and classmates come to feel entirely natural, and the same conversations, friendships, questions, and meetings still occur. In addition, some students find the online discussion format more stringent than a conventional teaching experience; Since they need to think more carefully about what they’re saying, and they can’t just put their hands up to answer a question.

To determine the feasibility of their various choices, students can contact the school financial assistance offices they are considering to learn more about the average help packages, their eligibility for student loans and tuition rates, and evaluate the final dollar amounts they will owe each term. They should also carry out a complete analysis of the overall attendance costs for the institutions that they consider. It is necessary to decide whether participants are likely to be paid extra, undisclosed fees for items such as access to distance learning, equipment, online libraries or resources (for an online program) or fees for student participation (for on-campus programmes). They all have to be factored into when measuring the tuition expenses, which can easily add up.

Ultimately, although both in-person and online degrees have their positive and negative aspects, both are decent alternatives, and it is up to each individual student to determine which suits their lifestyle, habits and schedule best.

Helping Dyslexic Students to Read

Dyslexia is a variation in the manner in which the brain processes language, from moderate to severe. With the right balance of school and home support, most children with dyslexia can learn how to read fluently.

Objective and systematic instruction that progresses sound-letter knowledge and understanding of how written language works is a very important way to improve children with dyslexia learn to read. At home, parents can use simple techniques to give dyslexic children the greatest available start in reading.

How to Teach a Dyslexic Child to Read

Individuals with dyslexia lose phonemic comprehension – the ability to understand the words that make up the individual sounds. In their learning environment, structured and clear training tends to resolve the issue for most children with dyslexia. Once a child has learned the idea of phonemic awareness, they start focusing on phonics skills – connecting sounds to letters to learn to read words. This is when the students start to develop a working vernacular. Eminent reader Linnea Ehri has found that the alphabetic system provides a mnemonic that helps students secure new memory vocabulary and grammar, both pronunciations and interpretations. Parents can help this development at home through a variety of activities using phonics to sound words out and develop the vocabulary for their child.

It is important to limit sessions to ensure the attention of your child is not worn out, and just focus on a couple of new words per session. Studies have shown that teaching too many words to children during a lesson reduces engagement.

Constructing CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) Words:

Lay out in two rows a set of alphabet cards-one for consonants and one for vowels. The six letters start with: s, t, p, n, a, i. Also have set of pictures using the specified letters, which are CVC words (consonant‐vowel‐consonant). Some explanations of these are pan, tin, or tap. Tell the kid to pick an picture, and name the object. They could also identify the initial sound, and choose the corresponding letter. Then do the same with the finishing sound.

Lay the two consonant cards with a gap between them, and request kids to identify the missing middle vowel. Then question them if they should use the remaining vowel to make a word with certain consonants. If they make ‘pan,’ for example, they can also make ‘pin.’ To help cement them in memory write down their CVC words. For each discussion add another letter building their CVC word bank.

Adjective Alliteration:

Teach your child to select an entity, a location or a person. Reflect on, and recognize the first sound in the word. Now simply come up with an adjective that has the same beginning sound (describing the word). Put them together and have the boy, for example, draw a picture of a blue balloon or a muddy mountain.

Afterwards those who try to sound out the two words and write down the letters for the sounds they hear. Laud all the right letters, point out the significance of a letter that may be incorrect but that denotes the right sound, and help them to work out what letters or sounds they overlooked.

Locating Mistakes:

Select a book that you’ve read with your child. Reinterpret the text but fill in some errors. Using the wrong vowel, such as ‘cer’ rather than car. Forget to double a letter (‘cal’) or add an extra letter (‘bookk’).

Asking your child to read this text which seems familiar. Tell them that there are some spelling errors and that they should circle every word they can seek that doesn’t look right. Admire all the issues they experience, and ask if they understand what went wrong and how to fix it. If not, then jointly explore the problem.

Importance of Agricultural Education

In many schools around the world, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) and entrepreneurship teaching methods have seen a nudge but should agricultural education be given more significance? There is no disputing the importance of basic education as it lays the model for the development of a child, but the agricultural education system can also provide real life skills for students that can help them both in their future professional and personal life.

What Are the Benefits of Agriculture and Farmers?

Impacts of climate change and its negative effects on food health and deterioration of the atmosphere are growing. Extreme changes in weather, such as droughts and water scarcity, affect crop production negatively. The United Nations (UN) has advised global hunger is propelled by climate change. The cases of extreme climatic disasters, including extreme heatwaves, droughts, floods, and storms, have more than doubled since the beginning of the 1990s, with a mean of 213 of these happening in a year during the 1990–2016 period. Such disasters are destroying the agricultural output of major crops including wheat , rice and maize, causing increases in food prices and losses in income that reduce people’s access to food, “the UN says.

Reports indicate that increased numbers of firms and investors are buying farmland worldwide as they become progressively valuable resources. Over time, continuing to grow raising livestock animals and aquaculture can become more challenging as drastic weather changes increase the susceptibility of animals to diseases, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) notes in a 2016 report among other things. At the same time, the World watch Institute has quoted FAO as saying that climate change will affect the availability and quality of the land, soil, and water resources. These are later reflected in crop output, which is leading to rising prices.

Although agricultural programs are commonly available at tertiary level, they are, depending on your country of residence, much less popular at elementary and secondary education level. Agricultural colleges are available in different countries like the United States, Australia, South Korea and the United Kingdom. They not only prepare students for agricultural careers, in spite of exposing students to field-related topics. Agricultural or farm schools have so much to teach out-of-class children, such as the importance of being responsible and persevering when caring for crops and animals. It can also help them build an affinity for nature and animals, exposing them to potential careers that they might never have considered otherwise.

It is remarkable that even the International Labour Organization (ILO) notes that the agriculture industry offers untapped employment opportunities; although the World Bank points out that farming is key to economic development. These hands-on teaching methods teach students where their food comes from and how it gets to the table. Children that grow up some of their own develop a greater connection to food, according to research; this can prompt them to lead healthier lives, as such children tend to stick to better diets.

The capability and knowledge to grow our own food (i.e. producing plant and caring for livestock) is essential for survival and yet, is an area of study that gains little significance in schools. Paired by the need to meet the growing population of the planet’s future food requirements, agriculture will play an ever more hugely important role in society. Logically, while not all students will harbour ambitions to undertake agricultural careers, foundation experience in the field can still prove to be a pragmatic area of study for their future.

Magnet Schools

A magnet school is a part of the local public education system, unlike charter schools or private schools. Students are usually camped into their schools at regular public schools based on their home location. Students go to the school nearest to where they live. It may not always be true nevertheless, as borders may seem vague and schools are not zoned at all in some smaller towns. Nonetheless, there are magnet schools outside zoned school boundaries. Whereas private schools are entirely independent from the boundaries of local public schools and charter schools are public schools with parental oversight, Magnetic schools remain a part of the public educational system and continue operating under the same board and management.

What are Magnet Schools – Magnet Schools of America

The special characteristic of a magnet school is that they usually have a particular curricular focus, according to the Magnet Schools of America. Popular subjects include STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), the arts, and career pathways. Nonetheless, there are many, lots of potential themes. The crucial fact is that magnet schools are choosing schools-children are enrolled on the basis of their interest in the theme of the school, not based on where they live. Although schools may have a general theme, the students are still studying a full range of subjects. Each subject content is correlated with local, state, or national learning standards (i.e., common core), but each topic is taught within the framework of the school. Magnet schools more often than not necessitate hands-on learning, which is based on independent investigation and performance.

An added distinctive feature of magnet schools is that they usually have an alternative, compelling, instructional modes. There’s a lot of Montessori magnet schools around the country, for example. A Montessori school is based on an educational model which considers children to be incredibly inquisitive and eager to learn.

Montessori schools are planning to build on that process to improve learning environments where children are active members of the process of education. It’s unique learning approaches, like those found at Montessori schools, often found in magnet schools. There are also many magnet schools that aim to improve representation within the public school system. But some magnet schools have taken on a more competitive role in education over the past 20 years, in that they can only admit 10-20 percent of the students applying to their school. Therefore, the initial request of magnet schools is to encourage academic opportunities and achievement beyond what is provided at their normal counterparts in public schools.

Magnet schools often entice gifted students who get good scores on tests and good grades. Almost one-third of all magnet schools use school achievement as selection criteria to determine who is invited to enrol for that year. Whilst magnet schools are more culturally balanced than their traditional counterparts, there may be other imbalances. Magnet schools are less likely to have the same combination of socioeconomic class (SES) as the standard public schools. For example, fewer students from the magnet school are eligible for free or whittled down lunch programs.

The magnet schools have both pros and cons. Some of these pros and cons deal with relevant magnet school experiences and others focus on magnet school conceptual or philosophical concepts. Trying to decide whether a magnet school is right for you dependent on a variety of factors for your child’s education, and on your own goals. The first step in deciding whether they make sense for your family is to comprehend what magnet schools are.

Theory of Mind

The basic principles involved in mind theory are beliefs, desires, and intentions that are used to comprehend why somebody is acting in some way or to predict how somebody is acting. In general, Mind Theory requires identifying the knowledge, beliefs, emotions and intentions of another person and using that understanding to navigate social situations. A commonly used task of measuring theory of mind is a task of false-belief, like this:

10 Picture Books for Practicing Theory of Mind Skills

Demonstrate the child a Band-Aid box and ask the child what’s inside the box he / she thinks. He or she will probably answer, “Band-Aids.” Open the box and display him / her that within is a toy pig, while saying that there’s really a pig inside and close the box after this.

Now, as you’re bringing into view a toy figurine boy who’s been hidden up to now, the adults say “Scott’s never seen anything inside this Band-Aid box. Now Scott comes here. So, what does Scott think the box contains? Band-Aids or a pig? Children who have established Mind Theory will understand that because he did not see in the box, Scott holds a different understanding than they.

Children who have formed Mind Theory will understand that because he did not see in the box, Scott continues to hold a different understanding than them.

They’ll respond that Scott thinks Band-Aids is in the box. Those who have yet to develop Mind Theory may respond that Scott thinks pigs are in the box, mistakenly thinking that Scott holds the same belief as they do.

Kids are improving on Mind Theory tasks around the age of 4 and are able to fully understand that somebody can act on the basis of a false belief about an object or event. In my own work with pre-schoolers, anecdotally, 3-year-olds tend to understand that Scott didn’t see inside the box, but still react that Scott thinks a pig is in the box.

For children with developmental disabilities, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it may take cognitive ability a little longer to develop, and some higher skills may not be attained at all. Youth (ages 5 to 13) with autism received lower scores on measures to understand the beliefs and emotions of others than those typically developed by young people, but there were no differences in understanding others’ intentions possibly since knowing intentions is a less nuanced ability that evolves faster than knowing feelings and beliefs. Mind Theory also predicted ASD diagnosis, so that those with the lowest level of these abilities had more serious diagnoses (i.e. autism with intellectual disability) than those with more advanced Mind Theory (Asperger’s syndrome) diagnoses. Mind theory evidently plays a role in the emergence of delays in development, with discrepancies between those with delays and normally developing adolescents persisting in middle and even adolescence.

By comprehending Mind Theory, we may not only be able to better diagnose those with complications, but also create more effective interventions to encourage and support cognitive development. It is believed that executive function is related to social social skills, so that those with higher levels of cognitive abilities also have greater social skills, with that relationship being partly related. The connection between perceived competence and executive function may be more nuanced and bidrectional, as indicated in some of the literature, but I think it is most important to establish how EF skills contribute to mental theory and social competence in this way. Understanding how the underlying EF(Executive Functioning) process affects one’s social development will help us build new approaches for children. These initiatives could focus on cognitive and EF components which could help develop social skills, making the intervention less anxious and more accessible.