The Plight Of The Migrant Workers

It’s quite an eerie feeling to ponder about the marginalized section of the society – the migrants, who are poverty-stricken, exploited and forced to dwell under impoverished living conditions. Migrants majorly comprise of the daily wage labourers who work in the manufacturing and small scale industries. These workers are denied of proper nutrition, housing and sanitation. They have less or no access to public health care facilities. The migrants are often the worst affected community. Considering the present scenario, ever since, the imposition of the nation wide lock down to curb the spread of the deadly virus, migrants across the country have faced multiple hardships. Millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages and uncertainty about their future. Following this, many of them and their families starved for days and succumbed to death. Thousands of workers walked barefoot to their respective homes in the wake of the ongoing pandemic. Research show that majority of the migrants move in to big cities in search of a better living. This is because of unavailability of work in their respective states. Women Migrants are the most vulnerable. When we look at the state of the women who still have no access to education, the reports are not encouraging. The rural women tend to engage themselves more in household chores rather than in attending school. One reason possibly could be – lack of resources. Children (girls specifically) in the rural areas either have to cycle or walk bare foot to reach school. They have no access to public transport. And once, the girl child hits puberty, parents force her to get married and have children. As a result of which, they move out from their villages to big cities not to make a better life for themselves but to survive. This shows how precarious the lives of these migrants are and that the big cities are not actually “home. “ In addition to the lack of job opportunities, unemployment is on the rise. A study of people with a high risk of unemployment found that they decreased their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Such a diet change affects the workers’ as well as their children’s health in the long run. Inadequate nutrition of children, a particular risk in low-income families, can hinder their physical and mental development.
Migrant labourers, who are mostly from rural areas but live most of the year in cities for work, are the victims of development. With the advent of technology, manual labor has reduced. The technological change has reduced the need for routine manual labor. As a result of which, daily wage labourers are not hired anymore. This is a long-standing problem, and has been into existence since ages. In this scenario, how well the migrants are faring? Do they have much to relish? Do they have a roof to rest? Do they have job security? Their future seems bleak.
India is a developing economy. One of the striking facts about India’s development model has been uneven development of rural and urban India. The rural regions of India need immediate and undivided attention.
• Areas with high incidence of poverty should be given equal and undivided attention. The Government should undertake Poverty Alleviation Programmes to eradicate poverty from the grass root level.

• The MGNREGA scheme came into force in 2006 yet in many parts of the country, the poor dies out of hunger. This is because, the Government doesn’t keep an eye whether the schemes launched are implemented. Implementation and execution should be made necessary.

• The migrants should be given jobs in their respective states with due respect. This is because, migrants, very often, get an undeserved bad name in the market.

• Development should be made in the field of agriculture. The Government should look after providing necessary equipments for a healthy yield, protecting them from weeds and weather conditions.
This will help the farmers rely on their own crops rather than depending on the landlords for money.

Migration is neither unique nor new to India. It has existed since mankind. Not everyone wants to leave home, of course, many see migration as one future pathway, whether permanently or temporarily with the hopes to one day return home.

Is Covid -19 Air Borne?

New evidence finds that the virus that causes Covid -19 can be spread through microscopic respiratory droplets up to several meters in enclosed indoor spaces. The risk of infection is higher indoors. Outdoors, the aerosols evaporate and disperse much more quickly. The current guidance from the WHO does not address the fact that the novel coronavirus can be transmitted through minuscule aerosols. It only states that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is primarily spread from person to person through large respiratory droplets, which are expelled into the air when a person coughs or sneezes. While that remains true, subsequent evidence has suggested that SARS-CoV-2 also spreads readily through much smaller particles that can hang in the air for hours and be inhaled.

How Covid -19 Spreads Through Aerosols?
Research has found that people with the virus can expel pieces of it when they exhale, talk, or cough. Those tiny viral pieces, called micro droplets, can be so small that they are able to float in the air and potentially travel a distance of multiple meters. Some micro droplets can travel across an entire room. People can then inhale those minuscule viral particles, then contract COVID-19 and get sick. Originally, it was thought that the major way that the virus was transmitted was from person to person by large particle droplets, which basically only travel about 6 feet or so and fall to the ground very quickly. Newer research strongly suggests that airborne transmission plays a bigger role than previously thought. “Small particle aerosols may actually be as important to even more important than these large particle droplets in terms of transmitting the virus.”
The risk is greatest in indoor environments — think crowded bars and restaurants — where there’s limited exchange of air and these small particle aerosols can stay aloft in the air for a significant period of time.

How To Protect Yourself From Airborne Transmission ?
Hand washing, physical distancing, and donning a face mask are key safety measures to protect yourself from COVID-19. Face masks are critical in reducing the risk of spreading or being exposed to the virus via aerosols.
“Since aerosolized droplets (containing viral particles) may remain in poorly ventilated rooms for minutes to several hours, the importance of wearing a mask while indoors should strongly be considered.” Mask wearing has become common, even required in some states, over the past few weeks, but people need to consider wearing them anytime they are indoors with people outside their household. The face coverings protect not only yourself, but those around you, too, in the event you’re asymptomatic and contagious.

We must take the necessary precautions to protect ourselves and our families as through airborne transmission constitute a major mode of transmission.

How To Create Your “Social Bubble” And Interact Safely Amid The Pandemic!

Social Bubbles offer an opportunity to socialize in close proximity with a small group of people. Keeping your social bubble to 10 or fewer can help reduce exposure to Covid -19 outdoor activities are a great way to with your social bubble. Summer time screams spending time with family and friends at celebrations inside and out. But with the pandemic still underway, the more people we interact with at a gathering and the longer that interaction lasts, the higher the potential risk of getting Covid -19.

We can still get our social fix, though. One way people are safely interacting with others is by embracing social bubbles or social pods.
In order to make your play pod as safe as possible, it’s important that you put some boundaries in place. First, the more people who are in your pod, the greater your Covid exposure risk. Ideally, keep your overall pod size to 10 people or fewer. Keep your circle small if you or anyone in your family is at an increased risk for Covid -19 due to age, asthma, it other medical conditions. Once your social bubble is established and you’re ready to interact, the following ideas can help bring some fun to your pod amid these stressful times.

Embrace Your Backyard
Stepping out can increase the risk of getting Covid -19, use the backyard of your house as an escape.
The beauty of a social pod or bubble — at least one where everybody follows the rules — is that when you spend time together (as long as you’re away from other people) you can interact pretty freely. Meetups where you’re all contained to one person’s home, backyard, or stoop are fair game.

Catching A Movie
Due to the pandemic, outdoor movie theatres are shut to curb the spread. Catching up for a movie indoors along your social bubble will help reduce the risk of getting Covid -19.

Look for Look Out Points
It’s hard for kids to stay at home idly. Plan games indoors, arrange dinner at the terrace, to get them moving and having fun.

Interacting with others by embracing social bubbles is one way you can get your social fix more safely by avoiding any physical contact.


Menopause occurs when a woman hasn’t menstruated in 12 consecutive months and can no longer become pregnant naturally. It usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, but can develop before or after this range. Menopause can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as hot flashes and weight gain.

When does Menopause begin and how long does it last?
Most women first begin developing menopause symptoms about four years before their last period. Symptoms often continue until about four years after a woman’s last period. There are many factors that help determine when a woman will begin menopause, including genetics and ovary health. Perimenopause occurs before menopause. Perimenopause is a time when hormones begin to change in preparation for menopause. It can last anywhere from a few months to several years. Many women begin perimenopause after their mid 40s. Other women skip perimenopause and enter menopause suddenly.

Perimenopause Vs. Menopause Vs. Post menopause
During perimenopause, menstrual periods become irregular. Periods may occur late or may complete vanish for about two months. Menstrual flow may also become heavier or lighter. Menopause is defined as a lack of menstruation for one whole year.
Post menopause refers to the years after menopause has occurred.

What are the symptoms of menopause?
Every woman’s menopause experience is unique. Symptoms are usually more severe when menopause occurs suddenly or over a shorter period of time.
Conditions that impact the health of the ovary, like cancer, or certain lifestyle choices, like smoking, tend to increase the severity and duration of symptoms.

Aside from menstruation changes, the symptoms of perimenopause, menopause, and post menopause are generally the same. The most common early signs of perimenopause are:
• less frequent menstruation
• heavier or lighter periods than normally experienced
• vasomotor symptoms, including hot flashes , night sweats, and flushing

Why does menopause occur?
Menopause is a natural process that occurs as the ovaries age and produce less reproductive hormones. The body begins to undergo several changes in response to lower levels of :
• Estrogen
• Progesterone
One of the most notable changes is the loss of active ovarian follicles. Ovarian follicles are the structures that produce and release eggs from the ovary wall, allowing menstruation and fertility. Most women first notice the frequency of their period becoming less consistent, as the flow becomes heavier and longer. This usually occurs at some point in the mid-to-late 40s.

Some women undergo treatment if symptoms of menopause are severe or affecting the quality of life. Hormone therapy may be an effective treatment in women under the age of 60, or within 10 years of menopause onset, for the reduction or management of:
• hot flashes
• night sweats
• flushing
• vaginal atrophy
• osteoporosis
Other medications may be used to treat more specific menopause symptoms, like hair loss and vaginal dryness.

Migraine Vs. Headache

When there is pressure or pain in the head, it can be difficult to tell whether the individual is experiencing a typical headache or a migraine. Differentiating a migraine headache from a traditional headache, and vice versa, is important.

What Is A Headache?
Headaches are unpleasant pains in your head that can cause pressure and aching. The pain can range from mild to severe, and they usually occur on both sides of your head. Some specific areas where headaches can occur include the forehead, temples, and back of the neck. A headache can last anywhere from 30 minutes to a week. Triggers for this headache type include stress, muscle strain, and anxiety.

What is migraine?
These headaches are intense or severe and often have other symptoms in addition to head pain. Symptoms associated with a migraine headache include:
• Nausea
• Pain behind one eye or ear
• Pain in the temples
• Seeing spots or flashing lights
• Sensitivity to light and/or sound
• Temporary vision loss
• Vomiting
When compared with tension or other headache types, migraine headache pain can be moderate to severe. Some people may experience headaches so severe they seek care at an emergency room. Migraine headaches will typically affect only one side of the head. However, it is possible to have a migraine headache that affects both sides of the head. Other differences include the pain’s quality: A migraine headache will cause intense pain that may be throbbing and will make performing daily tasks very difficult.
Migraine headaches are typically divided into two categories: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. An “aura” refers to sensations a person experiences before they get a migraine. The sensations typically occur anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes before an attack. These can include:
• feeling less mentally alert or having trouble thinking
• seeing flashing lights or unusual lines
• feeling tingling or numbness in the face or hands
• having an unusual sense of smell, taste, or touch
Some migraine sufferers may experience symptoms a day or two before the actual migraine occurs. Known as the “prodrome” phase, these subtler signs can include:
• Constipation
• Depression
• frequent yawning
• irritability
• Neck stiffness
• unusual food cravings

Treating Migraine

Prevention tips
Prevention is often the best treatment for migraine headaches. Examples of preventive methods your doctor may prescribe include:
• making changes to your diet, such as eliminating foods and substances known to cause headaches, like alcohol and caffeine
• taking prescription medications, such as antidepressants, blood pressure lowering medicines, antiseptic medicines, or CGRP antagonists
• taking steps to reduce stress


Everyone has anxiety, but chronic anxiety can interfere with the quality of life. It can also cause severe damage to our physical health. Anxiety is a normal part of life. For example, feeling anxious before entering the exam centre or a job interview. In general terms, anxiety increases breathing and heartbeat, concentrating blood flow to our brain, where we need it. If it gets too intense, however, people might start to feel lightheaded or likely to be in a state of trance. An excessive or persistent state of anxiety can have a devastating impact both on our physical and mental health. Anxiety disorder can happen at any stage of life, but they usually begin by middle age. Women are more likely to have an anxiety disorder than men. Stressful life experiences may increase risk for an anxiety disorder, too. Symptoms may begin immediately or years later. Having a serious medical condition or a substance use disorder can also lead to an anxiety disorder.

There are several types of Anxiety Disorders. They include :

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Generalized anxiety disorder is marked by excessive anxiety for no logical reason. GAD is diagnosed when extreme worry about a variety of things lasts six months or longer. If you have a mild case, you’re probably able to complete your normal day-to-day activities. More severe cases may have a profound impact on your life.

Social Anxiety Disorder
This disorder involves a paralyzing fear of social situations and of being judged or humiliated by others. This severe social phobia can leave one feeling ashamed and alone.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
This develops after witnessing or experiencing something traumatic. Symptoms can begin immediately or be delayed for years. Common causes include war, natural disasters, or a physical attack. PTSD episodes may be triggered without warning.

Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
People with OCD may feel overwhelmed with the desire to perform particular rituals (compulsions) over and over again, or experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts that can be distressing (obsessions).
Common compulsions include habitual hand-washing, counting, or checking something. Common obsessions include concerns about cleanliness, aggressive impulses, and need for symmetry.

These include fear of tight spaces (claustrophobia), fear of heights (acrophobia), and many others. You may have a powerful urge to avoid the feared object or situation.

Panic Disorder
This causes panic attacks, spontaneous feelings of anxiety, terror, or impending doom. Physical symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain, and shortness of breath.

Anxiety disorder can cause other symptoms, including:
• headaches
• muscle tension
• insomnia
• depression
• social isolation

An Apple A Day Keeps The Doctor Away – Fact Or Fiction

We likely are aware of the familiar expression “An Apple A Day Keeps The Doctor Away. “ While the phrase was first coined in 1913, it was based on a Pembroke shire proverb that originated in 1866. Although research shows that eating more apples may not actually be associated with fewer visits to the doctor, adding apples to our diet can help improve several aspects of our health. Apples are highly nutritious, loaded with fiber, vitamins, minerals and anti oxidants. In particular, Vitamin C acts as an anti oxidant to neutralize harmful compounds produced in the body and protect against diseases. Studies show that eating more apples could be associated with lower risk of chronic health conditions, including heart disease. This may be due to the presence of flavonoids found in apples, which are compounds that have been shown to reduce inflammation and protect heart health. Apples are also loaded with soluble fiber, which may help reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels, both of which are risk factors for heart disease. They also contain several compounds that may help prevent cancer formation, including antioxidants and flavonoids.

Other Health Benefits
Apples have also been linked to several other health benefits that could help keep the doctor away:
• Support weight loss. Due to their fiber content, apples have been shown to promote feelings of fullness, decrease calorie intake, and increase weight loss.

• Improve bone health. Human, animal, and test-tube studies have found that eating a higher amount of fruit could be associated with increased bone mineral density and a lower risk of osteoporosis.

• Promote brain function. Animal studies suggest that eating apples could help reduce oxidative stress, prevent mental decline, and slow signs of aging.

• Protect against asthma. Studies show that an increased intake of apples may be linked to a lower risk of asthma.

• Reduce the risk of diabetes. According to one large review, eating one apple per day was tied to a 28% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared with not eating any apples at all.
Although eating more apples may not literally be associated with fewer visits to the doctor, apples are rich in nutrients and offer several benefits for disease prevention and long-term health. In addition to apples, many other fruits and vegetables provide a similar set of nutrients and health benefits.

Break Up Grief

Going through a break up can be traumatic. Similar to other traumas, like the death of a loved one , break up can cause immense and long-lasting grief. But how do we mourn these losses, especially when the person may still pop up on social media or be connected with friends or colleagues.

In what ways are breakups like grief?
Similar to death, we carry the grief and inescapable pain of breakups with us for months, even sometimes for years. When people talk about a breakup, they often use the same language as when someone dies. I think it’s because we have a relatively limited range of words for communication when it comes to loss. Often, with a breakup and when someone dies, we look for closure because we’re uncomfortable with sadness. In this way, the losses are similar.
We’re losing someone who was embedded in our life. We no longer wake up to see the person’s face beside us in the morning. We can no longer call the person to chat for a few moments in a busy day. Anniversaries take on a new, potent significance. And you may never again visit the places you shared together.
But with a breakup, the suffering can be magnified in a particular way, because you know the other person is still out there somewhere. In turn, we can be drawn to dwell on how our lost love is living without us.

How does social media make it difficult for people to move forward after a break up?
Even, when a relationship ends, whether it’s a distant friendship or an intimate partnership, the digital footprint remains. Our feeds become a representation of the person we lost. And yet, in reality, we’re seeing only a curated glimpse of their life. From that glimpse we weave fantasies, believing that our narratives are true.

How to deal with the grieving process?
While grieving a loss is an inevitable part of life, there are ways to help cope with the pain, come to terms with your grief, and eventually, find a way to pick up the pieces and move on with your life.
• Acknowledge your pain.
• Accept that grief can trigger many different and unexpected emotions.
• Understand that your grieving process will be unique to you.
• Seek out face-to-face support from people who care about you.
• Support yourself emotionally by taking care of yourself physically.
• Recognize the difference between grief and depression.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness characterized by extreme shifts in the mood from high to low, low to high. Symptoms can include an extremely elevated mood called mania. They can also include episodes of depression. Bipolar Disorder is also known as manic depression. People with Bipolar Disorder may have trouble managing everyday life tasks at school or work, or maintaining relationships.

There are three main symptoms that can occur with bipolar disorder : mania, hypomania, and depression. While experiencing mania, a person with bipolar disorder may feel an emotional high. They can feel excited, impulsive, euphoric, and full of energy. During manic episodes, they may also engage in behavior such as :
• Spending Sprees
• Unprotected Sex
• Drug Use

Hypomania is generally associated with bipolar II disorder. It’s similar to mania, but it’s not as severe. Unlike mania, hypomania may not result in any trouble at work, school, or in social relationships. However, people with hypomania still notice changes in their mood.
During an episode of depression you may experience:
• Deep sadness
• Hopelessness
• Loss of energy
• Lack of interest in activities they once enjoyed
• Suicidal thoughts
• Periods of too little or too much sleep

Although it’s not a rare condition, bipolar disorder can be hard to diagnose because of its varied symptoms.

Bipolar disorder and depression
Bipolar disorder can have two extremes: up and down. To be diagnosed with bipolar, you must experience a period of mania or hypomania. People generally feel “up” in this phase of the disorder. When you’re experiencing an “up” change in mood, you may feel highly energized and be easily excitable.
Some people with bipolar disorder will also experience a major depressive episode, or a “down” mood. When you’re experiencing a “down” change in mood, you may feel lethargic, unmotivated, and sad. However, not all people with bipolar disorder who have this symptom feel “down” enough to be labeled depressed. For instance, for some people, once their mania is treated, a normal mood may feel like depression because they enjoyed the “high” caused by the manic episode.
While bipolar disorder can cause you to feel depressed, it’s not the same as the condition called depression. Bipolar disorder can cause highs and lows, but depression causes moods and emotions that are always “down.”

Possible causes of bipolar disorder include

If your parent or sibling has bipolar disorder, you’re more likely than other people to develop the condition. However, it’s important to keep in mind that most people who have bipolar disorder in their family history don’t develop it.

Your brain
Your brain structure may impact your risk for the disease. Abnormalities in the structure or functions of your brain may increase your risk.

Environmental factors
It’s not just what’s in your body that can make you more likely to develop bipolar disorder. Outside factors may contribute, too. These factors can include:
• extreme stress
• traumatic experiences
• physical illness
Each of these factors may influence who develops bipolar disorder.

Bipolar Disorder Treatment

Recommended psychotherapy treatments may include:

Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of talk therapy. You and a therapist talk about ways to manage your bipolar disorder. They will help you understand your thinking patterns. They can also help you come up with positive coping strategies.

Psychoeducation is a kind of counseling that helps you and your loved ones understand the disorder. Knowing more about bipolar disorder will help you and others in your life manage it.

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) focuses on regulating daily habits, such as sleeping, eating, and exercising. Balancing these everyday basics can help you manage your disorder.

Fat Shaming

Some believe that making overweight people feel ashamed of their weight or eating habits may motivate them to get healthier. However, the truth is, people who are overweight become more vulnerable to illnesses. Fat shaming makes them feel terrible about themselves, causing them to eat more and gain more weight.

What Is Fat Shaming?

Fat shaming involves criticizing and harassing overweight people about their weight or eating habits making them feel ashamed of themselves.

The belief is that this may motivate people to eat less, exercise more and lose weight. In the majority of the cases, the people who fat-shame are slim and never had to struggle with a weight problem. Research shows that much of the discussion on obesity on social media involves fat shaming, which often turns into harassment, and cyberbullying especially against women. In fact, there are entire online communities where people gather to troll overweight people. However, stigma and discrimination against overweight people cause major psychological harm and worsen the problem.

What Causes Overweight People To Eat More?

Discrimination causes stress and negatively affects people. In the case of overweight individuals, this stress can drive them to eat more and gain more weight. They have less or no control over their eating habits. Fat shaming causes overweight people to eat more, consume more calories and gain more weight.

Harmful Effects On Obese People

The harmful effects of fat shaming go beyond increased weight gain — which is serious enough.
Depression– People who are discriminated against due to weight are at a higher risk of depression and other mental issues.
Eating disorders– Fat shaming is linked to an increased risk of eating disorders, such as binge eating.
Reduced self-esteem– Fat shaming is linked to reduced self-esteem.
Others– By causing stress, weight gain, increased cortisol levels, and mental problems, weight discrimination may raise your risk of various chronic diseases.

The Bottom Line

Weight discrimination — including fat shaming — leads to stress and causes overweight and obese people to eat more. This form of bullying may not only cause additional weight gain but is also linked to depression, eating disorders, reduced self-esteem, and an increased risk of various other mental and physical problems.