Students and Stress

In the exam hall or before the exams everybody feels the butterflies flying in the stomach. This is how we experience stress during examinations.

What is stress?

Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demand made upon it. It is the result of our reaction to outside events. Stress is an outcome of:

  1. Examinations and surprise tests. We get stressed during our examinations. Most of the time we get nervous we don’t know the answer to some questions. Our hands start sweating and our mind blanks out at that time.
  2. When we don’t complete a particular assignment at the given time, we panic because of the little time left with us. We cannot give our best at this point of time.
  3. Returning to studies after a long break also is one reason for stress in students. We forget many topics that we had previously learned and read.
  4. Because of poor time management many students suffer from a great loss. Sometimes they study very much, sometimes they play too much or sometimes they spend most of their day on screens.
  5. Various problems at home also gives us a lot of stress. We cannot focus on studies or any other work. The fights between parents impacts a child in a negative manner.
  6. Noise pollution is also a cause of stress. Students are not able to relax while listening to continuous sounds coming from a party, construction site and neighbourhood.

Types of stress

  • Eustress – It is the positive cognitive response to stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. The goal is not too far out of reach but is still slightly more than one can handle. This fosters challenge and motivation since the goal is in sight. The function of challenge is to motivate a person toward improvement and a goal.  Eustress is indicated by hope and active engagement.
  • Distress – A range of symptoms and experiences of a person’s internal life that are commonly held to be troubling, confusing or out of the ordinary. Mental distress can potentially lead to a change of behavior, affect a person’s emotions in a negative way, and affect their relationships with the people around them. Certain traumatic life experiences such as: stress, lack of sleep, use of drugs or alcohol, assault, abuse or accidents can induce mental distress. This type of stress is negative and can deplete or destroy the energy for life.

How does stress affect us?

It increases our heart rate and muscle tension and causes headache, jaw ache, insomnia. It causes many diseases like asthma, hyperactivity, etc and the digestion slows causing ‘butterflies’ in stomach effect. It mentally affects us more. We start thinking negatively. it slows decision making ability and stunts the problem solving skills. There is a decrease in our concentration and focus. We often start forgetting about many things. We experience loneliness and worry about the future or the past. Increase intake of alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine to relax. We tend to isolate ourselves from our family members, friends and neighbours. We feel utterly unmotivated and lose our sense of humor.

We should not let stress affect us immensely. We should cope up with stress. Talking to anyone about our mental health can help. There are many methods to prevent stress which I will discuss in the next article.  

India’s Favorite Beverage – Chai

Every Indian household has one thing in common – a tea in the morning, a tea in the evening. But how much do we know about our Chai ?

Origin of Tea

Tea was first drunk in China as far back as 2700 B.C.! In fact words such as tea, ‘chai’ and ‘chini’ are from Chinese. There are various legends about the origin of Tea. There is one about the Chinese emperor Shen Nung who always boiled water before drinking it. One day a few leaves of the twigs burning under the pot fell into the water giving it a delicious flavour. It is said they were tea leaves. There is also an Indian legend about the origin of tea. Bodhidharma, an ancient Buddhist ascetic, cut off his eyelids because he felt sleepy during meditations. Ten tea plants grew out of the eyelids. The leaves of these plants when put in hot water and drunk banished sleep.

Masala Chai

Masala Chai originated in India. In India, many herbs and spices are added to the tea. Each family has their own version of making tea. It is a tea beverage made by boiling black tea in milk and water with a mixture of aromatic herbs and spices. Tea plants have grown wild in the Assam region since antiquity, but historically, Indians viewed tea as an herbal medicine rather than as a recreational beverage.

In the 1830s, the East India Company became concerned about the Chinese monopoly on tea, which constituted most of its trade and supported the enormous consumption of tea in Great Britain. Then, british colonists noticed the existence of the Assamese tea plants, and began to cultivate tea plantations locally. However, consumption of black tea within India remained low until the promotional campaign by the Indian Tea Association in the early 20th century, which encouraged factories, mines, and textile mills to provide tea breaks for their workers. It also supported many independent chaiwalas throughout the growing railway system. The official promotion of tea was as served in the Indian mode, with small added amounts of milk and sugar.

Indian varieties of Tea

  • Masala chai – It is the most popular beverage in India
  • Noon chai – The pink tea is a traditional tea beverage from Kashmir and also served in many parts of Rajasthan and Nepal.
  • Green tea – it has been used in Ayurveda and it has also become a part of the modern India lifestyle.
  • Black tea – Black Tea is stronger in flavour and produced by all tea producing regions of India. Large leaved Assamese plants are mainly used for black tea.
  • White tea – White Tea harvested in India, Sri Lanka and China, It’s one of the styles of tea made from the buds and immature tea leaves.
  • Herbal tea – Herbal Tea made from hot water and served hot with varieties of plant material such as hibiscus, rose, etc.
  • Iced tea – It is a common drink in India, mostly available as ginger lemon iced tea or lemon iced tea. Lipton and Nestle brand of tea are two most popular brands of iced tea in India.
  • Irani chai – Irani Chai are masala chai with some spices and a popular quick weekend breakfast.
  • Tandoori chai – It is made in tandoor where clay pots also known as kullhads are preheated in tandoor and again served in fresh and clean kulhads.

Indians and their Chai can never be separated from one another. Now,  I am also going to drink a refreshing cup of chai with tasty and crispy pakoras.

How Does Music Help Students?

I guess everybody likes music, at least everybody I know likes music. But most of us don’t know how music affects us and especially students. 

According to my dictionary, music is the sounds that are arranged in a way that is pleasant or exciting to listen to. But to me music is more than that. It is a way of life. Music freshens up my mind and provides a new energy. There are various types of music around the world but I like Indian classical music the most. It can be a little boring at first but as the tempo increases, the singer also starts singing faster and at that time I start dancing (mostly dancing in my mind). 

What happens when we listen to Music?

  • The brain treats the music differently. When we listen to music, many activities occur all around the brain  involved in movement, motor planning, attention and of course, the auditory cortex.
  • If the music feels good to your brain then it releases dopamine. It is basically your brain telling you whether you should or not listen to music.
  • It changes your mood and also changes your perspective about the world. A study showed that people see happy faces when they listen to happy music, but if they happen to listen to sad songs, they are likely to see sad faces. 
  • Music can control your fear and makes you ready to fight. It also stimulates memory from the hippocampus.
  • Music enhances frontal lobe’s function, which is used in thinking and decision making.
  • Song lyrics activate Broca’s and Wernickle’s area which improves the ability to communicate.

Music and Students

Music can create a mood. Study music can be relaxing and help students beat anxiety or stress while studying. Background music is likely to help students improve their focus during long study sessions.

Music can help with memorisation – that is the basis of “the Mozart effect” which suggested that listening to Mozart study music could actually enhance intelligence.

Study music is considered to be beneficial for the intake of vital information. Relaxing music for studying can help to ease nerves and help you beat pre-exam anxiety.

Studies have shown that Music can even increase your performance. A study done by Cambridge University showed that hip-hop music provides an uplifting effect on its listeners that can help them accept, manage and deal better with mental health issues

Perhaps one of the most compelling reasons to listen to music during a study session is because music is proven to help improve cognitive performance.

Music engages the areas of the brain involved with paying attention, making predictions and updating the event in memory. It helps us to improve our focus.

It can cure pain. Similar to how a lullaby would calm you, studies show that music can meaningfully reduce the intensity of pain, especially in geriatric care, intensive care, or palliative medicine. 

Music also increases motivation to do our work. It also improves our immune functions.

Due to so many benefits of music, Plato says, “Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.”

Indian Army Day

When people think about heroes of India, they only and only remember the Indian Army. Let us celebrate Indian Army Day by saluting all the army men and women for their bravery, dedication and patriotism.

Army Day is celebrated on 15 January every year in India, in recognition of Field Marshal Kodandera M. Cariappa taking over as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army from General Sir Francis Butcher, the last British Commander-in-Chief of India, on 15 January 1949. Today, India will celebrate its 73rd Indian Army Day. The day is celebrated in the form of parades and other military shows in the national capital New Delhi as well as in all headquarters. Army Day marks a day to salute the valiant soldiers who sacrificed their lives to protect the country and its citizens. Army Day strives to motivate people to build a great Nation by knowing about how an Army officer provides his/her full life for the betterment and safety of the people. While celebrations take place across the country, the main Army Day parade is conducted in Cariappa Parade ground in Delhi cantonment. Gallantry awards and Sena medals are also awarded on this day.

K. M. Cariappa

Kodandera Madappa Cariappa was the first Indian Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army. He led Indian forces on the Western Front during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army in 1949. He is one of only two Indian Army officers to hold the Five-star rank of Field Marshal; the other being Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw.

His distinguished military career spanned almost three decades. Born on 28 January 1898, in Madikeri, Kodagu, Cariappa joined the British Indian Army shortly after the end of World War I. He was transferred between multiple regiments early in his career before settling on 1/7 Rajputs, which became his permanent regiment. He was the first Indian military officer to attend the Staff College, Quetta, the first Indian to command a battalion. Several measures taken by Cariappa, such as his refusal to induct former Indian National Army personnel into the Army, kept the organisation out of political affairs and maintained its autonomy.  He died in his sleep on 15 May 1993. India remembers him as a true patriot and a son of the country. 

The primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, to defend the nation from external aggression and internal threats, and to maintain peace and security within its borders. It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances. The army comprises more than 80% of the country’s active defence personnel. It is the largest standing army in the world, with 12,37,117 active troops and 9,60,000 reserve troops. In 1992, the Indian Army began inducting women officers in non-medical roles. In 2014, India’s army had 3 per cent women and in 2015, India opened new combat air force roles for women as fighter pilots, adding to their role as helicopter pilots in the Indian Air Force. We all have love, respect and admiration for our soldiers and the Indian army as a whole.

Happy Indian Army Day!

Online Education

The meaning of schools has changed after the COVID-19 outbreak. Classes are being conducted in an online medium. This is the ‘new normal’ for the students of India.

How do the students learn?

When I was in 9th standard, we had a chapter in our English textbook about the education system in future. The students there studied through computers and did not go to school. At that time I often thought that I would never have to study and learn via computers and laptops. It has been almost ten months at home and I guess this has taught me that online education is possible but, I do miss going to school.

Online education is often called – distance learning, distance education, virtual learning, online learning, learning web-based training. Online education is electronically supported learning that relies on the Internet for teacher – student interaction and the distribution of class materials.

Some online educational programs are conducted exclusively through assigned lessons and assessments administered online. Others take the form of remote lectures where students join the class via the cameras on their laptops, and the instructor teaches or lectures from his own computer. Other courses are a combination of the two, requiring students to do a fair amount of independent research.

In my school, the classes are taken through Google Meet. The google meet link is shared in the class Whatsapp group. In my friend’s school the classes are conducted through Zoom. Teachers also present their screens in the meeting so that we can understand the concept clearly. After the class, the teachers assign us different assignments which we have to complete and submit in PDF form in a limited time. We also have exams online. First, the teachers share a Google Form for one mark questions; then they share the descriptive/writing part of the paper in Google Classroom. We are given half an hour to solve the one mark questions on Google Form and two and a half hours to solve and write the descriptive part. We have to write this part in our notebook, scan the pages and submit it in Google Classroom in PDF form within a fixed time period. These modern day learning applications are compatible with desktops/laptops as well as any smartphone.

Pros of online education

  1. Study from anywhere. There is no need to go to a particular place to study. We can study indoors as well as outdoors. Even if you are ill, you can attend the classes easily. 
  2. Flexible learning schedule is observed in online education. A lot of time is saved in learning online. You can also do a part time job and learn. 
  3. Students can control study time because of the flexibility in the timetable. They also get extra time for sports and hobbies.
  4. There is no transportation fee to reach the school that lowers the overall cost. (There is no need to buy shoes and socks!) 
  5. The minimum infrastructure required for online learning is a smartphone and internet connection. As the country is witnessing a digital boom, it is expected that the poor people can also afford and access these classes easily.
  6. Improves the student’s technical skills. To join the classes, a student needs to learn to operate computers and various other apps. 
  7. There is no bullying or ragging involved in this method of education. The students are also free from stress and anxiety. Hence, each student is physically and mentally healthy.
  8. Teachers can also share subject related videos to students to make the learning fun and interesting. In a traditional classroom environment, this would require projector and sound system setup.    

Due to the following reasons, many people choose online education over the traditional classroom interactional education.

Eco Friendly Tourism

It is often seen that tourist spots are very dirty, plastic bags and packets are thrown everywhere. In short, tourism is polluting the environment. We can stop this by promoting eco-friendly tourism. Here are three such types of tourism.

Eco Tourism

Ecotourism is defined as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education” (TIES, 2015). Ecotourism is about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel.

This means that those who implement, participate in and market ecotourism activities should adopt the following ecotourism principles:

  • Minimize physical, social, behavioral, and psychological impacts.
  • Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.
  • Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.
  • Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.
  • Generate financial benefits for both local people and private industry.
  • Deliver memorable interpretative experiences to visitors that help raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental, and social climates.
  • Design, construct and operate low-impact facilities.
  • Recognize the rights and spiritual beliefs of the Indigenous People in your community and work in partnership with them to create empowerment.

Some Eco tourism places in India are –

  1. Coorg, Karnataka
  2. Munnar, Kerala
  3. Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu
  4. Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand
  5. Kaziranga National Park, Assam

Sustainable Tourism

The World Tourism Organization defines sustainable tourism in the following manner: “Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems.”

According to The World Tourism Organization (WTO), sustainable tourism should:

  •  Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
  •  Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.
  • Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.

Some companies that promotes sustainable tourism in India are – 

  1. Kipepeo
  2. Evolve Back
  3. Spiti Ecosphere
  4. India Untravelled
  5. Green People

Geo Tourism

Geotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the distinctive geographical character of a place – its environment, heritage, aesthetics, culture, and the well-being of its residents.

Principles of geo tourism are – 

  • Integrity of place: Enhance geographical character by developing and improving it in ways distinctive to the local, reflective of its natural and cultural heritage.
  • Market diversity: Encourage a full range of appropriate food and lodging facilities
  • Community involvement: Base tourism on community resources to the extent possible, encouraging local small businesses and civic groups 
  • Protection and enhancement of destination appeal: Encourage businesses to sustain natural habitats, heritage sites, aesthetic appeal, and local culture. 
  • Land use: Anticipate development pressures and apply techniques to prevent undesired overdevelopment and degradation. 
  • Conservation of resources: Encourage businesses to minimize water pollution, solid waste, energy consumption, water usage, landscaping chemicals, and overly bright nighttime lighting. Advertise these measures in a way that attracts

Some geo tourism places in India are –

  1. Akal Fossil Wood Park, Jaisalmer
  2. Saketi, Sirmur District, Himachal Pradesh
  3. Peninsular Gneiss National Monument at Lalbagh, Bengaluru
  4. Columnar Basaltic Lava, Coconut Island (St. Mary’s Islands), Udupi District, Karnataka
  5. Ramgarh Crater, Baran district, Rajasthan.

National Youth Day

Youths are the future of our nation. Let’s celebrate the national youth day by learning about the significance of this day and also learning about how the youth population contributes to our nation.

National youth day is celebrated every year on 12th of january to commemorate Swami  Vivekananda’s birthday. Youth all over the world are inspired by his teachings about life, success and learning. He is a perfect role model for each and every student of India. This day was first observed in 1985 throughout India. This day is celebrated in schools and colleges by organising various competitions, speeches, seminars, debates, essays, quizzes, etc. On this day the youth population, which is about one-fifth of India’s total population understand their importance in the country. They also learn about Swami Vivekanada and his life principles. During the coronavirus pandemic, it will be difficult for schools and colleges to  conduct these programmes and so I think that this article will embolden them and encourage them to spread their ‘Wings of Fire’.

Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th january, 1863 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency (present day- Kolkata, West Bengal). He was one of the greatest spiritual leaders in India. He introduced the concept Yoga and Vedanta in the western world. He was the student of Shree Ramakrishna Paramhansa. He travelled to the United States and represented India at the 1893 Parliament of the World’s Religions. He also conducted numerous public and private lectures and classes. He circulated Hinduism philosophies in Europe, Britain and the USA. ‘Karma Yoga’ and ‘Raja Yoga’ are some of his most celebrated publications. He worked for humanity and the betterment of our society.

The original uploader was Dziewa at English Wikipedia. – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4310553

What can the youth learn from Swami Vivekananda?

The teachings of Swami Vivekananda motivated the students to “Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached.” These teachings tell us about the uncommon and remarkable personality of Swami Vivekananda. These teachings are based on his life situations 

  1. Be honest to everyone. Lying is a good way to get away with your mistakes but only in the short run. A lie leads to a thousand more lies. On the other hand speaking the truth is always best. The blame will come on you but people will always believe you. Honesty is the best policy. 
  2. You should always stick with the truth. Often, many people will stop you from telling the truth. They may repress you by using force or blackmailing you. But even in such times you should remember that truth is the small lamp that lightens the world.
  3. To achieve success, focus on your goals. Many-a-times people ultimately give up on their dreams, this is because they don’t focus on their goals. We become successful only when we work hard on our goals.
  4. Swami Vivekananda also taught everyone to face all the problems with courage and never run away from them. Every problem in life teaches us something new. Running away never really solves your problems, it just makes the problems an invisible weight on you.

Swami Vivekananda was a great person. We should remember him and follow his teachings. 

Happy National Youth Day to you.

Road Safety Week

Who doesn’t love long drives? It is relaxing to drive after a long stressful week. But the fun and enjoyment can turn into trauma, if we encounter an accident. As per the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways there were 4,49,002 road accidents recorded in India in the year 2019.

Road Accidents

Road accidents have become very common nowadays. As more and more people are buying automobiles, the incidences of road accidents are just increasing day by day. In year 2019, there were 4,49002 road accidents, killing 1,51,113 people and causing injury to 4,51,361 persons. This translates into an average of 1,230 accidents and 414 deaths every day and nearly 51 accidents and 17 deaths every hour (source: Ministry of road transport and highways). These accidents cause loss of life as well as material. People need to be more careful when on the road, no matter which mode of transport you use. To prevent the accidents we should follow all the traffic rules because not following traffic rules and guidelines could result in loss of life. Government and a few non-government organizations have taken the initiative to educate the people about road accidents and their prevention. 

Road Safety Week

Road safety week is celebrated from 11th January to 17th January every year with great joy and enthusiasm at many places in India.  People are encouraged about how to drive on the road by organizing a variety of programs related to road safety. During the whole week’s celebration, a variety of educational banners, safety posters, safety films, pocket guides and leaflets related to the road safety are distributed to the road travelers. 

Many commuters also explain about the methods and necessities of road safety. So that the people understand the use of helmets and seat belts while driving on the road or anywhere. They also tell the people about different rules, acts and laws related to road safety and encourage the people to follow them.

Various painting and drawing competitions, road safety advertisements, fairs, road rules tests, girls scooter rallies take place all around India to encourage the use of helmets, debates on road safety at the All India Radio, workshops, seminars, lectures etc. are organized during this week.

Free medical check-up camps and driving training workshops are organized for the drivers to encourage them towards road safety. This is done because generally, the drivers drive very fast to drop their customers to their destinations.

Road safety leaflets including roses, chocolates, and flowers are distributed to the travelers on the road. Road safety quiz contests are also organized to promote people about road safety. Traffic safety games including card games, puzzles, board games and etc are organized to educate school children about road safety.

Celebrating the road safety campaign was initiated by the ISS India HSE (Health Safety and Environment) in order to make people aware of the national road safety in the Indian subcontinent. India has a huge population of road travelers such as two-wheelers, four-wheelers on the road, that’s why we must know about road safety.

Olympiad Examinations In India

Olympiad exams are different from regular school examinations. Every student should participate in Olympiads but most parents and students do not know the importance of these examinations.

What are Olympiad Exams?

Olympiad exams are competitive exams conducted by various organizations across India and abroad. These examinations are conducted on the basis of the school curriculum of CBSE, ICSE, and other major state boards. These exams help to compare student’s performance with their peers across the country and also around the world. The question paper for these exams is objective-type with multiple-choice questions. There may be negative marking for wrong answers. There may be 50 to 100 questions in an examination and a strict time limit. Olympiad exams focus on concept-based learning and logical thinking. This in turn enhances the abilities of the student which is an important tool to face the future competition coming in their lives.

What is the importance of Olympiad Exams?

Olympiad exams evaluate the conceptual learning and strengthen the reasoning, analytical and problem solving skills of a student from an early age. This way the student becomes ready for the upcoming challenges of the competitive world. Many people feel that competition at such an early age will not be beneficial for students, but these examinations build a strong base for students. Hence it is necessary for a student to take part in these examinations. 

Main benefits of Olympiad exams

  • They are perfect to test a student’s conceptual understanding of the subject.
  • Improves the student’s problem solving ability and challenges them to think analytically.
  • Prepares them for future competitive exams by testing a student’s aptitude as well as the knowledge of a particular subject. 
  • Provides exposure to students at the national as well as international platforms.
  • Instills the quality of hard work in the students by pushing them to prepare hard for the exam and improve their result.
  • Students’ performance in school is also improved as Olympiads sharpen their thinking and learning process which helps them to grasp the concepts taught in schools better.

Who conducts Olympiad exams?

There are independent private organizations who conduct the Olympiad Exams. Some of the major Olympiad Exam conducting bodies are as follows:

SOF (Science Olympiad Foundation), CREST Olympiads (Online Olympiad Exams), Unicus Olympiads (Summer Olympiad Exams), Educational Initiatives (ASSET), Indian Talent Olympiad, Humming Bird Education, Eduheal Foundation, Silver Zone Foundation, Unified Council

Almost all the Olympiads consider participation from school only. Only CREST Olympiads and NSTSE (organized by Unified Council) accept individual registrations.

Subjects 

Subjects in which these examinations are conducted:

Mathematics, Science, English, Cyber, General Knowledge, French, Reasoning and Spell Bee.

Preparation for Olympiad exams

Most of the Olympiad exams are conducted on the similar syllabus that is taught at school. No additional reference books are required for the preparation of these exams. But still, there are some special books and guides to prepare for Olympiads. Students are only required to be clear with all the concepts and basics. The questions asked in the Olympiad exams are quite different from what kids learn in the school. Questions are trickier and conceptual which require the students to have a wide thought process to solve the variety of problems based on logics and concepts. 

My Favorite Indian Dance Forms

Alan Watts once said ‘life’s a dance of energy’. In the same way dance is also a way to express the energy of emotions and feelings. So here are my favourite dance forms.

Bihu Dance

By Rohan Gautam 002 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=86530098

Bihu is a popular folk dance associated with the state of Assam in India and it is performed generally during the Bihu festival. It is generally performed during the springtime. The energetic dance steps and quick hand movements define the Bihu dance of Assam. A lot of vibrancy can be seen in the dance outfit of Bihu, the male performers of Bihu are dressed in dhotis and gamocha. The women who perform Bihu usually wear traditional Assamese attire for the performance. Women team up their outfits with gaudy and heavy jewelry and they also decorate their braids with pretty flowers that perfectly match the color of the dress worn by them.There are many instruments that are utilized during a Bihu performance namely a Dhol, Pepa, Taal, Toka, Xutuli, Gogona and Baanhi. Watching the Bihu dance is mesmerising, the music enchants the atmosphere while the women and men of Assam joyfully dance.

Samai Dance

https://udaipurblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/shilp331.jpg

The word samayi means brass. It is called Samai dance because men and women dance with brass lamps or deepak put on their heads. Samai dance is performed by people of Goa during Holi and Shigmo festival. During the Samai dance, the women wear bright and colourful sarees and men wear kurta with pajamas. The men have a head ribbon tied to their heads while taking part in the lamp dance. Women wear gajra in their hair along with other traditional jewelry such as bangles, bindi, earrings, nose pins, and necklaces.The brass lamp used in the Samayi dance is one foot long with burning wicks which dancers need to balance while dancing. Samayi dance consists of very slow dance movements as dancers need to balance lamps on their heads. Dancers dance to traditional folk songs while making exquisite movements.The main instruments used in samai dance are Harmonium, Shehnai, Ghumat, Samel, Surt, and Zanj.

Chhau Dance

The Chhau Dance is a popular form of tribal dance in India that also integrates elements of martial arts into its movements. It is generally performed in in the states of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand.The dance form has three subtypes; namely Purulia Chhau, Mayurbanj Chhau and Seraikella Chhau, named differently because of the place of their origin.The dance developed a means to portray stories to the audience. The fables revolve around Ramayana and Mahabharata, Puranas and other India Literature with religious themes. Indian instruments – Dhol, Shehnai and Dhamsa make the recital come to life. The male dancers wear brightly colored dhotis with a matching kurta on top. A vast amount of costume jewelry is worn in the form of necklaces. Female dancers, or male dancers depicting female characters, are known to wear colorful sarees.The style and variety of the costume of the dancers largely depends on the characters being portrayed by them. The dancers also use different objects to display weapons.