Important Steps in Writing Research Paper

Writing a research paper is the most essential part of our research process. research publication will explain to the world about our research work, our contributions, and impact of the work. It also helps other researchers to understand the benefits and research gaps from the research area. In this article, we are going to find out the 8 important steps in writing a research paper.“The first draft is just you telling yourself the story.”
1. Title
Selecting a perfect title to our work is the first important step which also defines what our paper is all about. The title should be more informative and included all our major keywords in it.
2. Abstract
Statistics say, more than 90% of researchers read the abstract next to the title. It is a very important step defines writing a research paper. abstract is a summary of our research work it usually was written 100-150 words, this should be very crisp and clear about the research, what the whole paper is going to talk about.
3. Introduction
The introduction sets the first stage of our analysis and also predicts the tone and direction of our research paper. It helps readers to understand the paper even they don’t have any prior domain knowledge.
4. Methodology
The methodology describes our research paper’s goals and the procedures that what we carried out in the research work. a proper research methodology helps journal reviewer and readers to understand the entire concept of our research.
5. Conclusion
The fifth most important step to writing a research paper is the conclusion. it is a final summary of the results that we managed to achieve through our research. this also should explain why and how we arrived to this particular conclusion.
6. Review of Related Studies
Review of Related Studies places our research to define existing data and information about the previous research papers. It is very important to clearly explain our existing research experiment carried out in the same area that we used as a reference or base.
7. Recommendations
In the recommendation, carefully explain what needs to be done next and enumerate the possible steps that are needed to be taken. a proper recommendation will help readers and other researchers to carry out their own research.
8. Bibliography
The last and eighth important step in writing a research paper is a bibliography. In this, we have to list the source materials we used or consulted in making our research paper.
Whenever you start to write a new research paper make sure these 8 important steps in order to help the readers to be more comfortable and easy understanding.

1st Rank Cannot Claim Right to Post, Appointment of 2nd Ranker by State

It is most heartening to note that the Uttarakhand High Court has just recently on June 23, 2020 in a latest, landmark and extremely laudable judgment titled Professor GS Tomar Vs State of Uttarakhand and others in Writ Petition (S/B) No. 423 of 2019 most remarkably and most rightly held that while the holder of first rank in a selection process cannot claim the right to be appointed, the appointment of the second-ranker is arbitrary and violative of Article 14 of the Constitution. The Chief Justice-led Bench held that the failure of the respondent-state authorities to intimate the petitioner that he had stood first in the merit-list of selected candidates, pursuant to the selection process undertaken in terms of the advertisement issued in March 2015 and in offering appointment to the second candidate in the merit list is ex-facie arbitrary and illegal. Very rightly so!

                                                  To start with, this latest, landmark and extremely laudable judgment authored by Chief Justice Ramesh Ranganathan for himself and Justice Ramesh Chandra Khulbe sets the ball rolling by first and foremost pointing in para 1 that, “The jurisdiction of this Court has been invoked by the petitioner herein seeking a writ of mandamus directing respondent no. 1 – Additional Chief Secretary, Technical Education, Government of Uttarakhand to issue an order appointing the petitioner as the Director of the Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pauri Garhwal (for short the “GBPIET”) since he had secured the highest marks based on the recruitment process that was completed by the Government of Uttarakhand; in the alternative, for a writ of mandamus directing the State Government to conduct interviews for the recruitment process initiated earlier, for which screening of applications had been completed and the selection process is underway, within a specified time frame under the supervision of the Court; for a writ of mandamus directing the State Government to initiate appropriate inquiry and consequent disciplinary proceedings against errant officials/individuals, who were responsible for having denied the petitioner his rightful due of being appointed as the Director way-back in the year 2016, and yet again in the year 2019, under the supervision of this Court; and for a writ of certiorari to quash the government decision to invite more applications for the post of Director, Pauri Engineering College as the same is patently in violation of the law.”  

                                              While dwelling on the facts of the case, it is then stated in para 2 that, “Facts to the limited extent necessary, are that an advertisement was issued in March, 2015, inviting applications from eligible candidates for appointment to the post of the regular Director of the GBPIET, Pauri Garhwal. The petitioner and others submitted their applications pursuant thereto. The petitioner had also applied for the post of Director, Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Institute and was selected and appointed to the said post in February 2016. The tenure of Office of the Director, THDC Institute was also for a period of three years. On conclusion of the selection process, for appointment to the post of Director, GBPIET, Professor SP Pandey was appointed as its Director for a period of three years from August, 2016 till August, 2019.”

                                                  Truth be told, it is then brought out in para 3 that, “In his affidavit dated 04.09.2019, filed in support of this Writ Petition, the petitioner alleges that, though he stood first in the merit list of candidates selected for the post of Director, GBPIET, he was neither intimated of his result nor was he offered appointment to the post of Director, GBPIET and, instead, Professor S.P. Pandey who stood second in the merit list, was appointed as its Director in August, 2016.”

                                              While continuing in the same vein, it is then stated in para 4 that, “To continue the narration further, even before completion of his three year tenure as Director, GBPIET, Professor SP Pandey resigned from the said office and left on 03.02.2018. The second respondent-Institute was then placed under the control of an In-charge Director and a fresh advertisement was issued (hereinafter referred as the ‘second advertisement’) on 02.06.2018 inviting applications afresh for the post of Director, GBPIET. The petitioner again applied and participated in the selection process held in terms of the second advertisement. While 80 marks were allotted for several other criteria, 20 marks were allotted for interview. The petitioner was awarded more than 64 marks from out of 80, and the next most meritorious candidate, i.e. Prof RB Patel, was awarded only 31.42 marks.”

                                          To be sure, it is then pointed out in para 5 that, “Mr Abhijay Negi, learned counsel for the petitioner, would contend that, if interviews had been held and the petitioner had been awarded zero marks out of 20, and Prof RB Patel had been awarded 20 marks out of 20, even then it is the petitioner who would have stood first in merit, and ought to have been appointed as the Director, GBPIET. The fact, however, remains that the selection process, pursuant to the second advertisement dated 02.06.2018, was discontinued, and a third advertisement was issued on 23.01.2019.”

                                                As it turned out, after hearing both the parties, the Bench most importantly then minced no words in para 14 to clearly convey that, “Failure of the respondents to intimate the petitioner that he stood first in the merit-list of selected candidates, pursuant to the selection process undertaken in terms of the advertisement issued in March, 2015, and in offering appointment to the second candidate in the merit list, is ex-facie arbitrary and illegal. The respondents’ contention that the petitioner had already been appointed as the Director of the THDC Institute (another State Government Institution) by then, did not absolve them of their obligation to inform the petitioner that he was entitled to be appointed as the Director, GBPIET for the choice, whether to continue as the Director, THDC Institute or to join the office of Director, GBPIET, was for the petitioner to make, and not for the respondents to impose. If the petitioner had been intimated of his selection, it was then open to him to exercise his option to either resign as the Director, THDC Institute and join the office of Director, GBPIET, or to continue as the Director of the THDC Institute. By their failure to so intimate the petitioner, the respondents have acted in violation of Article 14, as the petitioner has been arbitrarily and illegally deprived of his right to be appointed as the Director, GBPIET though he stood first in the order of merit.”   

                                        Needless to say, the Bench then also makes it clear in para 20 that, “It is true that no candidate, by mere selection, has a legal right to be appointed. In terms of Article 16 of the Constitution of India, he has only a right to be considered for selection and appointment. (Pitta Naveen Kumar and Ors. v. Raja Narasaiah Zangiti and Ors. (2006) 10 SCC 261). Ordinarily, notification of posts is merely an invitation to the qualified candidates to apply for recruitment and, on their selection, they do not acquire any right to the post. Unless the relevant recruitment rules so provide, the State is under no legal duty to fill up all or any of the vacancies. Notification of vacancies for appointment, and a candidate being found fit for selection, does not mean that the successful candidate can claim to be appointed as of right. (Laxmibai Kshetriya v. Chand Behari Kapoor and Ors. (1998) 7 SCC 469; Shankarsan Dash (1991) 3 SCC 47; State of Bihar and Ors. v. Md. Kalimuddin and Ors. (1996) 2 SCC 7; Mahadev Appa Rao (2010) 7 SCC 678; and Punjab State Electricity Board and Ors. v. Malkiat Singh (2005) 9 SCC 22). By his mere selection, the candidate acquires no indefeasible right for appointment even against existing vacancies. (All India SC & ST Employees’ Association and Anr. v. A. Arthur Jeen and Ors. (2001) 2 SCR 1183; Aryavrat Gramin Bank v. Vijay Shankar Shukla (2007) 12 SCC 413; State of Rajasthan and Ors. v. Jagdish Chopra (2007) 8 SCC 161; State of M.P. and Ors. v. Sanjay Kumar Pathak and Ors. (2008) 1 SCC 456 and Asha Kaul (Mrs.) and Anr. v. State of Jammu and Kashmir and Ors. (1993) 2 SCC 573).”     

                                               To put things in perspective, it is then made absolutely clear in para 22 that, “Ordinarily a Superior Court, in the exercise of its powers of judicial review, would not interfere with the decision of the employer in making appointment, unless its action or inaction is found to be so arbitrary as to offend Article 14 of the Constitution of India. (Aryavrat Gramin Bank v. Vijay Shankar Shukla (2007) 12 SCC 413). While a candidate, who finds a place in the select list, may have no vested right to be appointed to any post, in the absence of any specific rules entitling him thereto, he may still be aggrieved by his non-appointment if the authority concerned acts arbitrarily or in a mala fide manner (UT of Chandigarh v. Dilbagh Singh AIR 1993 SC 16 and Mahadev Appa Rao (2010) 7 SCC 678).”

                                             To sum up, this well balanced, well reasoned and well analyzed judgment leaves no room for doubt that while 1st rank cannot claim right to post, appointment of 2nd ranker by State also illegal, arbitrary and violative of Article 14 of the Constitution! All courts must follow this! There can be no denying or disputing it!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.

MP HC Impose Planting Of Saplings As A Bail Condition

In an interesting, refreshing and fresh development, the Madhya Pradesh High Court Bench at Gwalior in a notable judgment titled Tilakraj Rajoriya Vs State of M.P. in M.Cr.C. No. 11643/2020 that was delivered on June 24, 2020 has in its recent order while granting bail to a person accused of assaulting a minor girl with intent to outrage her modesty has directed him to plant saplings along with tree guard, as one of the conditions for bail. The accused had been booked under Sections 354 of the IPC and 7/8 of POSCO Act. The court allowed his bail application in view of the Covid-19 situation, on his furnishing a personal bond of Rs 50,000/- in addition to the condition to plant saplings.   

                                   To start with, this latest, landmark and extremely laudable judgment authored by Justice Anand Pathak of Gwalior Bench of Madhya Pradesh High Court sets the ball rolling after noting that the matter is heard through video conferencing that, “The applicant has filed this second bail application u/S. 439 Cr.P.C for grant of bail. Applicant has been arrested on 22.01.2020 by Police Station Dehat, District Ashoknagar in connection with Crime No. 27/2020 registered for offence under Sections 354 of IPC and 7/8 of POSCO Act. His earlier bail application was dismissed as withdrawn vide order dated 12.02.2020 passed in MCRC.No.6214/2020.”

                                           To put things in perspective, it is then brought out that, “It is the submission of learned counsel for the applicant that false case has been registered against him and he is suffering confinement since 22.01.2020 whereas charge-sheet has already been filed. Now, applicant learnt the lesson hard way and would not commit the same nature of offence in future and would not involve in any criminal activity and become a better citizen. He undertakes to cooperate in trial and would not be a source of embarrassment or harassment to her and her family in any manner and would not move in the vicinity of prosecutrix. Applicant who is young/middle aged/able bodied responsible citizen undertakes to become corona warrior for social cause looking to the Covid-19 Pandemic situation. He further undertakes to perform community service and serve the national cause by making contribution in PM Care Fund and install Arogya Setu App. On these grounds, prayer for bail has been made.”

                                          As anticipated, the counsel for the State opposed the prayer and prayed for dismissal of bail application as pointed out also in this judgment. After hearing the learned counsel for the parties at length through video conferencing and considering the arguments advanced by them, it is then pointed out that, “Considering the facts of the case in detail, however, considering the fact that in view of Covid-19 pandemic, without commenting on the merits of the case, it is hereby directed that the applicant shall be released on bail on his furnishing personal bond of Rs. 50,000/- (Rupees Fifty Thousand only) with one solvent surety of the like amount to the satisfaction of trial Court and that he will have to install Arogya Setu App, if not already installed. He will not move in the vicinity of prosecutrix and would not extend any threat, intimidation or allurement to the victim or her family. He will not involve in any criminal activity otherwise benefit of this bail application shall be immediately withdrawn.”

                                        As it turned out, it is then envisaged that, “In view of COVID-19 pandemic, the jail authorities are directed that before releasing the applicant, his preliminary Corona Virus test shall be conducted and if he is found negative, then the concerned local administration shall make necessary arrangements for sending the applicant to his house, and if he is found positive then the applicant shall be immediately sent to concerned hospital for his treatment as per medical norms. If the applicant is fit for release and if he is in a position to make his personal arrangements, then he shall be released only after taking due travel permission from local administration. After release, the applicant is further directed to strictly follow all the instructions which may be issued by the Central Govt./State Govt. or Local Administration for combating the Covid-19. If it is found that the applicant has violated any of the instructions (whether general or specific) issued by the Central Govt./State Govt. or Local Administration, then this order shall automatically lose its effect, and the Local Administration/Police Authorities shall immediately take him in custody and would send him to the same jail from where he was released.”    

                                           Be it noted, it is then laid down explicitly and elegantly that, “This order will remain operative subject to compliance of the following conditions by the applicant:-

1.  The applicant will comply with all the terms and conditions of the bond executed by him;

2.  The applicant will cooperate in the investigation/trial, as the case may be;

3.  The applicant will not indulge himself in extending inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him/her from disclosing such facts to the Court or to the Police Officer, as the case may be;

4.  The applicant shall not commit an offence similar to the offence of which he is accused;

5.  The applicant will not seek unnecessary adjournments during the trial; and

6.  The applicant will not leave India without previous permission of the trial Court/Investigating Officer, as the case may be.

7.  The applicant will inform the SHO of concerned police station about his residential address in the said area and it would be the duty of the Public Prosecutor to send E-copy of this order to SHO of concerned police station for information.

8.  Applicant shall deposit Rs. 2500/- within a month in PM CARES Fund having Account Number : 2121PM20202, IFSC Code: SBIN0000691, SWIFT Code : SBININBB104, Name of Bank & Branch : State Bank of India, New Delhi Main Branch from the date of release of applicant.  

9.  The applicant through his counsel undertakes that applicant shall register himself with the District Magistrate concerned [Ashoknagar] as “Covid-19 Warriors” by entering his name in a Register named as COVID-19 WARRIOR REGISTER to be maintained in the o/o the concerned DM who in turn shall assign work to applicant of Covid-19 disaster management at the discretion of District Magistrate, by taking all prescribed precautions. The nature, quantum and duration of the work assigned is left to the wisdom of District Magistrate, concerned. This Court expects that the applicant shall rise to the occasion to serve the society in this time of crises to discharge his fundamental duty of rendering national service when called upon to do so, as per Article 51-A(d) of the Constitution.

10.                   As per the undertaking given by learned counsel on behalf of the applicant, it is hereby directed that appellant shall plant 1 sapling (either fruit bearing trees or Neem and Peepal) alongwith tree guards or has to make arrangement for fencing for protection of the trees because it is the duty of the appellant not only to plant the saplings but also to nurture them. He shall plant saplings/trees preferably of 6-8 ft., so that they would grow into full fledged trees at an early time. For ensuring the compliance, he shall have to submit all the photographs of plantation of trees/saplings before the concerned trial Court alongwith a report within 30 days from the date of release of the applicant. The report shall be submitted by the appellant before the trial Court concerned on 1st of every month.”

                                     Importantly, it is then directed by the Court that, “It is the duty of the trial Court to monitor the progress of the trees because human existence is at stake because of the environmental degradation and Court cannot put a blind fold over any casualness shown by the appellant regarding progress of the trees and the compliance made by the appellant by placing a short report before this Court every quarterly (every three months), which shall be placed under the caption “Direction” before this Court. Any default shall disentitle the appellant from benefit of bail.”

                                            More importantly, it is then further directed that, “The appellant is directed to plant these saplings/trees at the place of his choice, if he intends to protect the trees on his own cost by providing tree guards or fencing, for which appellant shall have to bear necessary expenses for plantation of the trees and their measures for safeguard.”

                                 Most importantly, it is then also made clear that, “This direction is made by this Court as a test case to address the Anatomy of Violence and Evil by process of Creation and a step towards Alignment with Nature. The natural instinct of compassion, service, love and mercy needs to be rekindled for human existence as they are innately engrained attributes of human existence. It is not the question of Plantation of a Tree but the Germination of a Thought.”

                                        Furthermore, it is then held that, “The District Magistrate concerned is directed to intimate this Court in case condition No. 9 is not complied with and on receipt of any such intimation, Registry is directed to list the matter before appropriate bench as PUD.”

                                  Finally, it is then held that, “E-copy of this order be sent to the trial Court concerned for compliance, if possible, for the office of this Court. Certified copy/e-copy as per rules/directions.”

                                               In conclusion, it may well be said that the exemplary condition imposed for bail of planting saplings along with tree guard is quite laudable and must be applauded in no uncertain terms. Just recently, we also saw the Orissa High Court imposing similar condition of planting hundred saplings as a condition of bail. This itself proves that it is a good, bold and innovative way of imposing conditions for bail by which our environment also will gain immeasurably! No denying it!      

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.


by: Abhishikta Sengupta

In the words of the pioneering cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead, “Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.” The distorted notion of education existing simply as a means to meet each succeeding requirement for the attainment of an ultimate goal, for instance a grade or an occupation, is one that needs to be dispelled. This motivation by way of external regulation cripples any scope for the development of indispensable practical tools, such as that of decision making and critical reasoning.

We have largely been conditioned to associate a certain rigid form of education as a recipe for success, which goes on to perpetuate damaging beliefs, such as the culture of rote learning. It is imperative to recognise that such philosophies were formulated during a time when the world had not evolved sufficiently to value unique abilities and require differential skill sets to be present amongst its students, and thus its working age population, in order to reach its full potential. The stimulus that evoked the conditioned response of failing to challenge the ideologies presented to us is no longer a factor, thus provoking the necessity of shattering them and developing meaningful passions of our own, rather than those that were conventionally acceptable.

There exists no distinction between a human student and an artificial intelligence system if the prevailing educational structure seeks only to feed and program its learners with incomplete, censored and even irrelevant information or data that is mandated by age-old tradition, and requires them to absorb it and then consequently act on it. Rather, it should be aiming at cultivating personal and genuine interests and individually suited approaches as opposed to encouraging only standardly “rewarding” or résumé building activities.

It is of vital importance to ensure a comprehensive overview of subjects such as history and politics so as to prevent the formulation of baseless and ignorant stances as a result of exposure to a biased or one-dimensional outlook. This in turn inspires the emergence of well-informed opinions, values and morals in students that define their future actions. This along with effective teaching of fundamentals, open-ended questioning, idea exploration, allowing of diverse perspectives and opportunities for creative expression and practical experience makes for the creation of emotionally intelligent, innovative and competent students with superior logical and analytical skills, adept at displaying empathy and tact as well as approaching and assessing a situation in a multitude of ways, and discovering constructive solutions for the same.

An education system that focuses on teaching its students what to think in a bid to produce compliant and deferential citizens sacrifices on the potential of originality, diversity and natural instinct. The career landscape has reached a juncture wherein the customarily acceptable professions are no longer the only ones considered worthwhile, and it is crucial that students are made aware of that, so as to ensure that they work to hone, develop and enhance their other skills. There is no greater tragedy than indoctrinating students into a system that it hardwired to fit them into boxes by teaching all of them to think just the same.

MBA (Master of Business Administration) – Gateway to Top Jobs

MBA (Master of Business Administration) is a master degree programmer in business administration.

Before jumping to the conclusion that a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) is the right path for you, stop and ask yourself why. The hunky-dory vision of life after MBA may not be so easy after all. Not every management graduate receives a cushy job and dream salary package. You must have your goals in place to be able to establish a solid and successful career after an MBA.

The usual reasons for doing an MBA these days:

It earns you more money

It gives you a promotion in your job

It helps you quit a job that sucks

Why pursue an MBA

To launch a progressive career

To make a shift in career, if you already are an experienced professional

To nurture an innovative outlook

To network with the best in the market

To add a brand value to yourself

To enhance personal growth

To start a business/ start-up/ turn entrepreneur

To move to another location

Scope of an MBA amongst Current Market Trends

Pursuing an MBA will give you skills that you may use to solve day-to-day business and management problems. MBA courses are more relevant today than ever before because thought leaders are needed to exploit the rapid growth in the Indian economy.

Unique Knowledge

Cut-throat competition is a reality. It is not uncommon for senior employees who have experience but lack an up-to-date skill set to lose out to younger colleagues who have pursued an MBA.


There is an increased specialization of careers in the service sector. This has led to emergence of specialized subjects in which you can pursue an MBA. Through subjects such as finance or marketing, you will not only learn the basics of business, but also be able to create a niche for yourself. You can look for the availability of a course of your liking in the best B-schools of India online or through appearing for their entrance exams, if any.

Better pay and Scope for Promotions

Pursuing a course such as a 2 year or1 year full time may change the direction of your career. It is an added academic achievement, which may increase the likelihood of getting a raise and promotion. It may also open up opportunities for jobs that you were not eligible for before because of its orientation towards leadership and team-building.

Entrepreneurship Skills

Startup India and other initiatives have made the Indian economy conducive to the establishment and growth of businesses.

The curriculum of a one year MBA or any other MBA courses in India will train you to differentiate between a good and bad strategy business strategy. You will learn how to give your business a global outreach, how to adopt techniques to attract external funding, and how to hire the best minds in the job market.

Having an MBA on your CV may translate into job security because you will still be able to find a job even if your business does not perform favorably.

India as an Emerging Economy

Emerging economies are proving to be fertile ground for MBA graduates, because it is easier to navigate unstructured markets with a structured mind. Companies are constantly looking to expand in such economies, and they need professionals trained in business and management to give direction to their growth.

The increase in domestic and foreign demand coupled with expansion in finance, real estate and investments are expected to cause a surge in India’s growth story, and an MBA degree is best designed to take advantage of it.

 MBA is a biggest opportunity for future security ,an mba aspirant can do anything in industrial sector .mba is one the most big job oriented professional programme and one which has been sought by the students .after completing this degree you may become the manager or can start their own business.

The MBA degree was initiated in the late 19th century in the USA. The MBA degree has been started to produce the sound management professional equip with the basic and advanced knowledge to stand the business administration.

Today, the world is growing in the fields of marketing, industrialization, financing and education. The MBA programme has specially been designed for the candidates who are executing the administration of the industries or related field.

Courses :-  For the admission in an MBA programme, many institutions require the GMAT 2020 (Graduate Management Admission Test) score.

But, entrance test is not required for the admission to the distance learning or Online.

In india (ignou : Indira Gandhi national open university provides mba course)

But in delhi university you need to crack the the cat exam after that you will get the admission in delhi university.

Many colleges and Universities are offering MBA programme as full-time and part-time or through online or distance learning education.

An exe-MBA (Executive Management of Business Administration) is also popular now. The working professional who wishes to get the higher degree according to his job profile can do the EMBA as part-time or online medium. In India, the accreditation body for MBA or related programme is AICTE (All India Council of Technical Education). There are different accreditation bodies in different countries.

The student can choose the core courses according to the interest. The top core subjects of an MBA degree are as the following:

  • Finance
  • Marketing
  • Operation
  • International Business
  • Banking
  • Information Technology (IT)
  • Human Resources (HR)
  • Accounting
  • Oil & Gas
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Retail
  • Supply Chain
  • Event
  • Tourism & hotels

The students choose the mba specialization fields according to their interest. Whether you have done graduation in engineeringartsscience or humanities, you are free to choose the MBA programme in any specialization, what you wish to.

Once you have done your MBA degree, you can go for the doctoral degree programme (PhD), offers by the various institutions in India and Abroad.


There are many universities which provides mba in india or foreign

The best part of the programme that the graduate in any discipline can get the admission in MBA programme.

The top colleges or universities in India, offering MBA programme are as following:

  • Symbiosis International University
  • Institute of Management & Technology
  • Sikkim Manipal University
  • Maharishi Dayanand university
  • ICFAI University
  • Amity University
  • Lovely Professional University
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth University
  • Indian Institute of Finance

Jobs profiles of mba holder

 An MBA professional always plays a vital role in his/her company and this is why, he used to keep in touch with the board of directors.

No need to specify the companies who recruit the MBA professionals. The all sectors including government and public have various industries, companies, institutions or related organizations, come in the job prospective fields for an MBA professional.

  • Brand Manager
  • Account Manager
  • International Business Manager
  • Marketing Executive
  • Business Technical Consultant
  • Business Development Executive
  • Marketing Manager
  • Management Consultant

These are some profiles of a mba holder who can be engaged in this work after completing his post-graduation in mba


“Handsome salary packages are offered to MBA qualified candidates”.

Management sector is one of the highest paying sector. The salary is no issue for the right candidates who have a good leadership, decision making skill, enthusiasm and good academic background.

The initial package in India is around Rs. 2 to 3 lakh per annum but the maximum is unlimited. Also the increment in this sector is quiet good and depending on your capability, you can reach up to six figure income in quick span of time.

  • Enrollment : if you completed your graduation from any fields you can prepare now for entrances for ex: CAT Entrance Exam ,XAT Entrance Exam,GMAT Entrance Exam,CMAT Entrance Exam,MAT Entrance Exam

After clearing this exam you can enrol your interest in your dream universities.

Strictest Punishment For Mob Lynching Needed Now Most

 It has to be said right at the outset that mob lynching cannot be justified on any pretext and under any circumstances come what may! There has to be zero tolerance for it but right now we see that the perpetrators of the crime are either escaping with just no punishment or are being punished on a very lenient basis thus making a complete mockery of our country on the world stage! It merits no reiteration that this must be set right now.

                                         What message are we sending to the world if we don’t ensure that mob lynchers are promptly punished with most appropriately death penalty or at the least with life imprisonment for at least 25 years in jail without any parole or remission of any kind whatsoever? How can mob lynching be justified by anyone under any circumstances? Are we living in Talibani India? Certainly not!

                                             Every year we get to hear many incidents of mob lynching but when do we hear that mob lynchers have been mob hanged or mob jailed for life! Centre must now wake up and act on this immediately. I rate mob lynching no less than terrorism rather even worse than terrorism because without being trained ever by the intelligence agency or army of any foreign country such brutal crimes are committed most heinously!

                                               There is no reason that why it must not be crushed with an iron hand and those involved in it be made to pay for it by paying fine of many lakhs and also death penalty or life term! We all know how even a police officer Mohammad Ayyub Pandit was not spared in Kashmir and his body was broken after mob beat him badly, broke all his bones and set him ablaze! Same is the case in many other similar cases! We saw how brutally Tabrez Ansari was mob lynched in June yet the Jharkhand police has sought to charge the 11 men with culpable homicide that does not amount to murder! Should all those involved in such heinous acts not be hanged promptly? Yet we see that not even murder charges are slapped against such mob lynchers!  

                                         Needless to say, we all know fully well that even Supreme Court in Tehseen S Poonawalla Vs Union of India & Ors in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 754 of 2016 delivered on July 17, 2018 has most unequivocally directed the Centre and States to take preventive, punitive and remedial measures to stop lynching incidents in the future and issued detailed guidelines pertaining to the same. The Apex Court Bench has minced just no words to hold unequivocally that the State has to act positively and responsibly to safeguard and secure the constitutional promises to its citizens. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the right to life and personal liberty to all the citizens of our nation and no mob can be allowed under any circumstances to hold it to ransom!

                                        Having said this, it must now be brought out here that the Apex Court then issued some guidelines to be followed. Those guidelines are as follows: –

A.                Preventive Measures

(i)   The State Governments shall designate a senior police officer, not below the rank of Superintendent of Police, as Nodal Officer in each district. Such Nodal Officer shall be assisted by one of the DSP rank officers in the district for taking measure to prevent incidents of mob violence and lynching. They shall constitute a special task force so as to procure intelligence reports about the people who are likely to commit such crimes or who are involved in spreading hate speeches, provocative statements and fake news.  

(ii) The State Governments shall forthwith identify Districts, Sub-Divisions and/or Villages where instances of lynching and mob violence have been reported in the recent past, say, in the last five years. The process of identification should be done within a period of three weeks from the date of this judgment, as such time period is sufficient to get the task done in today’s fast world of data collection.

(iii) The Secretary, Home Department of the concerned States shall issue directives/advisories to the Nodal Officers of the concerned districts for ensuring that the Officer In-charge of the Police Stations of the identified areas are extra cautious if any instance of mob violence within their jurisdiction comes to their notice.

(iv) The Nodal Officer, so designated, shall hold regular meetings (at least once a month) with the local intelligence units in the district along with all Station House Officers of the district so as to identify the existence of the tendencies of vigilantism, mob violence or lynching in the district and take steps to prohibit instances of dissemination of offensive material through different social media platforms or any other means for inciting such tendencies. The Nodal Officer shall also make efforts to eradicate hostile environment against any community or caste which is targeted in such incidents.

(v) The Director General of Police/the Secretary, Home Department of the concerned States shall take regular review meetings (at least once a quarter) with all the Nodal Officers and State Police Intelligence heads. The Nodal Officers shall bring to the notice of the DGP any inter-district co-ordination issues for devising a strategy to tackle lynching and mob violence related issues at the State level.

(vi) It shall be the duty of every police officer to cause a mob to disperse, by exercising his power under Section 129 of CrPC, which , in his opinion, has a tendency to cause violence or wreak the havoc of lynching in the disguise of vigilantism or otherwise.

(vii) The Home Department of the Government of India must take initiative and work in coordination with  the State Governments for sensitising the law enforcement agencies and by involving all the stakeholders to identify the measures for prevention of mob violence and lynching against any caste or community and to implement the constitutional goal of social justice and the Rule of Law.

(viii) The Director General of Police shall issue a circular to the Superintendents of Police with regard to police patrolling in the sensitive areas keeping in view the incidents of the past and the intelligence obtained by the office of the Director-General. It singularly means that there should be seriousness in patrolling so that the anti-social elements involved in such crimes are discouraged and remain within the boundaries of law thus fearing to even think of taking the law into their own hands.

(ix) The Central and the State Governments should broadcast on radio and television and other media platforms including the official websites of the Home Department and Police of the States that lynching and mob violence of any kind shall invite serious consequence under the law.

(x) It shall be the duty of the Central Government as well as the State Governments to take steps to curb and stop dissemination of irresponsible and explosive messages, videos and other material on various social media platforms which have a tendency to incite mob violence and lynching of any kind.

(xi) The police shall cause to register FIR under Section 153A of IPC and/or other relevant provisions of law against persons who disseminate irresponsible and explosive messages and videos having content which is likely to incite mob violence and lynching of any kind.

(xii) The Central Government shall also issue appropriate directions/advisories to the State Governments which would reflect the gravity and seriousness of the situation and the measures to be taken.

B.            Remedial measures

(i) Despite the preventive measures taken by the State Police, it comes to the notice of the local police that an incident of lynching or mob violence has taken place, the jurisdictional police station shall immediately cause to lodge an FIR, without any undue delay, under the relevant provisions of IPC and/or other provisions of law.

(ii) It shall be the duty of the Station House Officer, in whose police station such FIR is registered, to forthwith intimate the Nodal Officer in the district who shall, in turn, ensure that there is no further harassment of the family members of the victim(s).

(iii) Investigation in such offences shall be personally monitored by the Nodal Officer who shall be duty bound to ensure that the investigation is carried out effectively and the charge-sheet in such cases is filed within the statutory period from the date of registration of the FIR or arrest of the accused, as the case may be.

(iv) The State Governments shall prepare a lynching/mob violence victim compensation scheme in the light of the provisions of Section 357A of CrPC within one month from the date of this judgment. In the said scheme for computation of compensation, the State Governments shall give due regard to the nature of bodily injury, psychological injury and loss of earnings including loss of opportunities of employment and education and expenses incurred on account of legal and medical expenses. The said compensation scheme must also have a provision for interim relief to be paid to the victim(s) or to the next of kin of the deceased within a period of thirty days of the incident of mob violence/lynching.

(v) The cases of lynching and mob violence shall be specifically tried by designated court/Fast Track Courts earmarked for that purpose in each district. Such courts shall hold trial of the case on a day to day basis. The trial shall preferably be concluded within six months from the date of taking cognizance. We may hasten to add that this direction shall apply to even pending cases. The District Judge shall assign those cases as far as possible to one jurisdictional court so as to ensure expeditious disposal thereof. It shall be the duty of the State Governments and the Nodal Officers, in particular, to see that the prosecuting agency strictly carries out its role in appropriate furtherance of the trial.

(vi) To set a stern example in cases of mob violence and lynching, upon conviction of the accused person(s), the trial court must ordinarily award maximum sentence as provided for various offences under the provisions of the IPC.

(vii) The courts trying the cases of mob violence and lynching may, on an application by a witness or by the public prosecutor in relation to such witness or on its own motion, take such measures, as it deems fit, for protection and for concealing the identity and address of the witness.

(viii) The victim(s) or the next kin of the deceased in cases of mob violence and lynching shall be given timely notice of any court proceedings and he/she shall be entitled to be heard at the trial in respect of applications such as bail, discharge, release and parole filed by the accused persons. They shall also have the right to file written submissions on conviction, acquittal or sentencing.

(ix) The victim(s) or the next of kin of the deceased in cases of mob violence and lynching shall receive free legal aid if he or she so chooses and engage any advocate of his/her choice from amongst those enrolled in the legal aid panel under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.  

C.                   Punitive measures

(i) Wherever it is found that a police officer or an officer of the district administration has failed to comply with the aforesaid directions in order to prevent and/or investigate and/or facilitate expeditious trial of any crime of mob violence and lynching, the same shall be considered as an act of deliberate negligence and/or misconduct for which appropriate action must be taken against him/her and not limited to departmental action under the service rules. The departmental action shall be taken to its logical conclusion preferably within six months by the authority of the first instance.

(ii)  In terms of the ruling of this Court in Arumugam Servai v. State of Tamil Nadu (2011) 6 SCC 405, the States are directed to take disciplinary action against the concerned officials if it is found that (i) such official(s) did not prevent the incident, despite having prior knowledge of it, or (ii) where the incident has already occurred, such official(s) did not promptly apprehend and institute criminal proceedings against the culprits.

                        Simply put, the Bench directed that, “Apart from the directions we have given hereinbefore and what we have expressed, we think it appropriate to recommend to the legislature, that is, the Parliament, to create  a separate offence for lynching and provide adequate punishment for the same. We have said so as a special law in this field would instill a sense of fear amongst the people who involve themselves in such kinds of activities.” Now it is up to Parliament to act and make lynching a separate offence as soon as possible as the Apex Court has directed.

                                Needless to say, it was made amply clear by the Bench that the measures that are directed to be taken have to be carried out within four weeks by the Central and the State Governments. The Bench also made it clear that, “Reports of compliance be filed within the said period before the Registry of this Court. We may emphatically note that it is axiomatic that it is the duty of the State to ensure that the machinery of law and order functions efficiently and effectively in maintaining peace so as to preserve our quintessentially secular ethos and pluralistic social fabric in a democratic set-up governed by rule of law. In times of chaos and anarchy, the State has to act positively and responsibly to safeguard and secure the constitutional promises to its citizens. The horrendous acts of mobocracy cannot be permitted to inundate the law of the land. Earnest action and concrete steps have to be taken to protect the citizens from the recurrent pattern of violence which cannot be allowed to become “the new normal”. The State cannot turn a deaf ear to the growing rumblings of its People, since its concern, to quote Woodrow Wilson, “must ring with the voices of the people.” The exigencies of the situation require us to sound a clarion call for earnest action to strengthen our inclusive and all-embracing social order which would in turn, reaffirm the constitutional faith. We expect nothing more and nothing less.”

                                             It has been more than a year and two months that the top court had urged the Parliament in this extremely landmark and laudable judgment to enact a separate law to punish offenders participating in lynching of persons yet no action taken till now! India has faced major international embarrassment because of this and will continue to face so thus giving a bad name to our nation if such incidents are not controlled on a war footing immediately! It brooks no more delay now! Centre must abide entirely by what the Apex Court has held so categorically, clearly and convincingly! Let’s hope so!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh. 

A mis niños y niñas especiales: To my special students

This is a love letter to you, my special, smart, and beautiful students. You have touched my heart so deeply and profoundly that words cannot adequately convey how much you mean to me. I write this note, so you know the hopes and dreams I have for you.

You come to a school that is known as a Title 1 school meaning that a lot of students at our school come from economically disadvantaged families. You may not know this as the teachers and staff at our school demand that you receive educational resources and a quality education; the same kind of education that students receive at schools in the wealthier parts of our school district. My hope for you is that you always realize that true wealth is not measured by how much money one has but in how much one stays open to learning and gives of oneself to make the world a better place.

You come to a school that, before the state stopped rating schools, had C and D ratings (due to standardized test scores). You did not know that because when you or anyone else walks into our school, you are greeted with smiles and kindness. The walls throughout the school walls are filled with the wonderful academic work from our K-6 students.

During our gifted classes, as you know, respect for each other takes precedence over everything else. You are different ages, different genders, and different ethnicities. Conflicts happen as they do in life. You handled them with great sophistication, never calling one another names, talking about how the conflict made you feel, and discussing actions to avoid similar conflicts in the future. My hope is that you take this respect and ability to discuss your thoughts and feelings in other parts of your life now and in the future.

We live in a state that is 55% Hispanic and a school that is 85% Hispanic. Your Mexican customs and culture are so very beautiful. It has been a privilege to learn about the Mexican food, music, dance, art, and holidays. I hope you will always be proud of your culture and will freely share it with others who are unfamiliar with it. I owe you an apology in that I didn’t use curriculum materials and resources that featured the Mexican culture. You should have learned more about Mexican writers, artists, scientists, mathematicians, culinary artists, and athletes. I am making a commitment to use such materials during our next school year. To the few of you who are moving onto middle school and won’t be in my gifted classes any longer, I am deeply sorry. I can only wish that your future teachers will use and create such materials. My hope for all of you is that you will educate your children, relatives, friends, and others about your beautiful Mexican culture.

You come from a state that is 55% Hispanic and a school that is 85% Hispanic. Your background and culture are accepted here in New Mexico. You may not be accepted if you end up going to school or living in a state without a majority of a Hispanic population. I’ve had students in the past who told me stories of being shocked when living in another state where there were prejudicial acts against them such as being followed throughout a store; just because of the color of their skin. I hope, as MLK stated, that you will live in a world that you will not be judged by the color of your skin, but by the content of your character. My hope for you, in any case, is that you have developed the resilience that comes with loving and being proud of who you are regardless of what others may think. Black and Brown lives really do matter.

You come from families with parents who do not have college degrees. My hope for you is that, if you choose to, you will go to college. In my discussions with your parents, that is their hope for you, too. Even though you haven’t had some of the same advantages as wealthier students, you are smart enough, creative enough, and motivated enough to be successful in any college you choose; that you can keep up and even surpass other students at that college.

I write this note to you in times of unrest in the United States due to the murders of Black men and women by the police. I write this note in hopes that you will become an adult who works for justice for all. I know this is a lot of pressure, but my hope and faith come from knowing you will be our future leaders.

I leave you with this Mexican Dichos (Proverb):

You can’t succeed if you don’t try.

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Emotional Check-Ins in a Teaching Webinar

I always start my classes with some form of emotional check-in regardless of age or grade level. I do so in my college classes as well as in my elementary gifted classes. I think this is even more imperative given the stress students are experiencing due to COVID19. The 10 to 15 minutes it takes is so worth the class time.

Some of the benefits of emotional check-ins discussed in the Edutopia article, A Simple but Powerful Class Opening Activity, include:

Students know that every voice matters: The emotional check-in gets every student’s voice into the room at the start of each class. Although students can always say “pass” instead of sharing, each student has the opportunity to be heard every class session. The check-in is also a great opportunity to practice active listening, turn-taking, and following group norms.

Students develop awareness of others’ emotions—and how to respond to them: When students share their emotions during the check-in, they give their classmates a snapshot of their emotional state. And if I hear a student say that “I didn’t sleep much last night” or “I feel like I can’t focus today,” I can adjust my interactions with that person accordingly.

The check-ins also acknowledge that how students are feeling is important to the educator, that they matter as human beings who have feelings and emotions.

One of my college classes moved from face-to-face to Zoom this semester. What follows are some of the check-in activities I have done with them.

Using a Feeling Chart

Students use a feeling chart to describe how they are feeling. A side benefit of using feeling charts is that they help students increase their feelings vocabulary.

Source: Emotional Intelligence 2.0 by Travis Bradberry

Share a Rose; Share a Thorn

Each student shares a Rose, something good or positive, from the day or week; and a Thorn, something not-so-good or positive, from the day or week.

Four Types of Care

Students, during the check-in, take turns using the four types of self care graphic to describe strategies they are doing or would like to do to be physically, emotionally, socially, and spiritually healthy.

5 Step Check-In Process

The teacher leads students through the 5 step check-in process described in Emotional Check-ins: Why You Need Them:

  1. Tune into your body.
  2. Take a deep breath.
  3. Ask the question. Use the simple question, “How am I feeling?” Make it even more specific by tacking on the phrase “right now” or “in this moment.” 
  4. Use descriptive words to capture how you feel. 
  5. Brainstorm what might be contributing to those emotions.

Then each student is given an opportunity to share what came up for them during the exercise.

Pear Deck

Pear Decks are very similar to a PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation. But instead of simply static, informational slides, you get to create Interactive Slides that let every student respond to your questions or prompts. Once PearDeck is activated, through the Google Slides add-on, students are given a code to access the Pear Deck. There they interact with each slide through typing, drawing, and using a draggable icon depending how the teacher set up the slide. What follows is the Pear Deck I used for a check-in at the start of one of my classes.

Create an Image Based Timeline of Feelings

Students create a timeline of images that represent: how you felt last week; how you feel today; how you want to feel this coming week; and finally, what strategies you can use to get to how you want to feel this coming week. Students then share their images via their webinar cameras and discuss their meaning with the rest of the class. What follows are (1) the prompt for this activity, and (2) sample student pictures:

Gif Image

Using Giphy students do a search for different feelings and emotions they are currently experiencing, and then select one or more Gifs that represent those feelings. They then take turns to do a screenshare of their selected Giphy and explain why they selected it.

Padlet Check-In

Padlet is an application to create an online bulletin board that you can use to display information for any topic. You can add images, links, videos, text, and drawings. Below is a Padlet I created for an emotional check-in.


Menitmeter allows teachers to engage and interact with students in real-time. It is a polling tool wherein teachers can set the questions and your students can give their input using a mobile phone or any other device connected to the Internet. Their input is displayed on a slide in a selected format: Word Cloud, Speech Bubbles, One-By-One, and Flowchart. In the case of check-ins, it can be used to have students put in responses to a question related to how they feeling at the start of class and their responses then are shown to the class via a slide. The example below shows a slide with a Word Cloud of emotional check-in responses.


Flipgrid is a website that allows teachers to create “grids” to facilitate video discussions. Each grid is like a message board where teachers can pose questions, called “topics,” and their students can post video responses. For an emotional check-in, students record a short video about how they are feeling.